Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences and Patient Care: Radiology Review Intro to Radiography Flashcards


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1

Generally accepted criteria that serve to differentiate a profession from other occupations or trades

Professional Ethic

2

deals with the "rightness and wrongness" of an act or behavior as compared with natural reason. Combination of societal laws and values.

Ethics

3

Ethical reflections that emphasize an intimate personal relationship value system that includes such virtues as sympathy, compassion, fidelity, discernment, and love.

Ethics of Care

4

Sources for Ethical Attitudes.

Science Culture Religion Experience

5

defined by laws, rules and regulations, ordinances, and so on.

Societal behavior

6

Practice behaviors that are defined by members of a profession.

Standards of Professional Conduct

7

Defined by two distinct documents, professional Standards of Conduct and Scope of Practice. Establishes norms for professional conduct.

Professional behavior

8

Manners and attitudes generally accepted by members of a profession.

Professional Etiquette

9

Regulations established by government and applicable to people within a certain political subdivision. Can be limiting and are not comprehensive in controlling all possible behaviors. Can be politically motivated and applied unequally.

Laws

10

Laws need _________ and ______________

enforcement and authority

11

Rights of individuals or groups that are established and guaranteed by law.

Legal Rights

12

Basis for rights-based ethical theory; each individual is protected and allowed to pursue personal projects.

Liberal Individualism

13

Generally accepted customs, principles, or habits of right living and conduct in a society and the individual's practice in relation to these.

Morals

14

Rights of individuals, or groups that exist separately from governmental or institutional guarantees; usually asserted based on moral principles or rules.

Moral Rights

15

General, universal guides to action that are derived from so-called basic moral truths that should be respected unless a morally compelling reason exists not to do so; also referred to as ethical principles.

Moral Principles

16

Articulated statement of role morality as seen by the members of a profession.

Code of Ethics

17

ARRT's mandatory standards of minimally acceptable professional conduct. These are enforcable and can result in sanctions should the ARRT determine the certificate holder has violated any of the rules

Rules of Ethics

18

The ARRT Code of Ethics is composed of two parts. What are these two parts and what do they deal with?

Part A - deals with behaviors a professional should aspire to achieve Part B - deals with mandatory rules of acceptable professional conduct

19

typically static and slow to change in order to reflect changing societal trends and values.

Ethical codes

20

Situations requiring moral judgement between two or more equally problem-fraught alternatives; two or more competing moral norms are present, creating a challenge about what to do. occur when the correct choice is not clear and personal values may conflict.

Ethical Dilemmas

21

Ethical Analysis steps

Identification of the problem Developing alternative solutions Selecting the best solution Defending the selection

22

Bodies of systematically related moral principles used to resolve ethical dilemmas

Ethical Theories

23

List Ethical Theories.

Consequentialism Nonconsequentialism Social Contracts Rights-based ethics Principle-based ethics Virtue-based ethics

24

Belief that the worth of actions is determined by their ends or consequences; actions are right or wrong according to the balance of their good and bad consequences.

Consequentialism

25

Belief that actions themselves, rather than consequences, determine the worth of actions; actions are right or wrong according to the morality of the acts themselves.

Nonconsequentialism

26

Relationship that exists when two mutually dependent groups in a society recognize certain expectations of each other and conduct their affairs accordingly.

Social contract

27

Collection or set of values that an individual or group has as each person's personal guide.

Value system

28

based on an understanding of human rights (right to health care, rights of health professions)

Rights-based ethics

29

use of moral principles as a basis for defending a chosen path of action in resolving and ethical dilemma

Principle-based ethics

30

Belief system based on a set of moral principles that are embedded in a common morality.

Principlism

31

Traits of character that are socially valued, such as courage.

Virtues

32

use of virtues in establishing right reason in action

Virtue-based ethics

33

__________ and __________ form the framework of Virtue-based ethics.

Character Virtue

34

List the basic ethical principles.

Beneficence Nonmaleficence Autonomy Veracity Fidelity Justice

35

Perform actions that benefit others. Decide and act always to benefit the patient. bringing about good

Beneficence

36

Above all do no harm. Never perform or allow acts that may harm the patient. preventing harm

Nonmaleficence

37

Perform actions that respect the independence of other persons. The patient must decide what is done to his or her person. acting with personal self reliance

Autonomy

38

Being truthful is right To tell the truth is expected. telling the truth

Veracity

39

Performing acts that observe covenants or promises is right. Be faithful

Fidelity

40

Performing acts that ensure the fair distribution of goods and harm are right. Be fair or equity

Justice

41

List the different Professional relationships.

Toward patients Toward physicians Toward co-workers/other health care providers

42

How to avoid Ethical conflicts.

Understand some situations are unavoidable Clearly understand the right/wrong thing to do Choose right thing to do When unsure, research professional standards of conduct and ethical principles as a guide

43

Gross violation of commonly held standards of decency or human rights.

Ethical Outrage

44

Deals with variety of human societies and cultures and examines their similarities and differences.

Human diversity (Cultural diversity)

45

Establish behaviors of people. Can be for a lifetime and provide comfort.

Cultures

46

Globalization

people now cross borders into other countries to work, go to school, receive medical care, visit, and live.

47

List the key diversity traits.

Age Ethnicity/national origin Race Gender Sexual orientation Mental ability Physical ability

48

Play major role in how individuals perceive others.

Personal biases

49

Process by which people of diverse backgrounds slowly give up their original cultural language and identity and try to merge into another culture (usually the majority). Diminishes the accomplishments, contributions, and values of one culture in favor of those of the mainstream.

Assimilation

50

The ability of an individual to be able to negotiate competently two or more cultures (the mainstream's culture & their own culture).

Biculturalism

51

U.S. Mainstream Values

-Activity and hard work -Personal achievement and success Individualism -Efficiency and practicality -Affluence, consumerism, and material comfort -Competition -Openness, directness, and being well informed

52

List the the aging generations (subsets of population).

World War II Baby Boomers (1946-1964) Generation X (1965-1980) Generation Y (1981-1999) Generation Z (2000-present

53

The most significant subset, because of the impact they will have on the population. This subset is considered to be generally healthy and well educated.

Baby Boomers

54

Relates to a person's distinctive racial, national, religious, linguistic, or cultural heritage.

Ethnicity

55

Defined as possessing a set of attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in a system, or among individuals, that enable effective interactions in a cross-cultural framework.

Cultural competency

56

Five elements that contribute to becoming culturally competent.

Value diversity Develop capacity for cultural self-assessment Become aware of dynamics of cross-cultural interaction Institutionalize cultural knowledge Develop adaptations of service delivery that reflects an understanding of a multicultural environment

57

To provide high-quality and effective care for all patients, health care providers need to understand the following six areas of human cultural diversity and how these areas influence the delivery of care.

Communication Space Time Environmental control Biologic variations Social organizations

58

Results in ionization of atoms.

Loss of electrons

59

___________ must outweigh the ________ of any x-ray diagnostic study.

Benefits risks

60

Two sources of ionizing radiation

natural and manmade

61

_____________ and __________ x-ray examinations make up the largest portion of human-made radiation exposure.

Medical and dental

62

Conditions necessary for x-ray production.

Source of electrons (Cathode filament)(negative) Means of accelerating electrons/high-speed motion (Voltage) Mechanism stopping electrons abruptly/deceleration (Target/Anode)(positive)

63

Energy of beam is expressed in __________.

Kiloelectron volts (keV)

64

Three possible paths an x-ray beam can undergo.

Total absorption Pass through with no energy loss Scattering/secondary interaction with loss of energy

65

Five types of x-ray interactions with matter.

Classic coherent scattering Photoelectric interactions Compton scattering Pair production Photodisintegration

66

Who does photoelectric interactions expose?

Patient

67

Who does compton scattering expose?

Radiographer/Tech

68

Involves very-low energy x-rays. No ionization occurs.

Classic Coherent Scattering (Thompson scattering)

69

What does coherent scattering do to an atom?

Atom becomes excited and emits x-ray with same energy.

70

Classic Coherent Scattering occurs when x-rays possess energy levels below what keV?

10 keV

71

Occurs within the diagnostic x-ray energy range

Photoelectric effect Compton scattering

72

Incoming x-ray photon is completely absorbed by collision with inner-shell(k-shell) electron.

Photoelectric effect

73

What does Photoelectric effect do to an atom?

-Electron (photoelectron) leaves atom, creating an ion pair. -Free electron eventually unites with other matter. -Secondary radiations created as a result of electron cascade from outer shells to inner shells.

74

In the Photoelectric effect, which electron produces an x-ray with energy high enough to impact your image?

The electron that drops in to the hole in the k-shell

75

Radiation interaction responsible for most hazard to patients. Why?

Photoelectric effect Because there is complete absorption in the patient

76

Incoming photon collides with outershell electron

Compton Scattering

77

What does Compton Scattering do to an atom?

-Incoming photon collides with outershell electron, creating a free Compton electron (recoil) and an ion pair. -Incoming photon loses some of its energy through collision, scatters off in a random direction (scatter angle), and undergoes other interactions until its energy is gone. -The electron vacancy is filled nearly instantly.

78

Reaction with matter that requires very high energy photons.

Pair Production

79

For the pair production to occur, the energy of the incoming x-ray photon must be at least:

1.02 MeV

80

What does Pair Production do to an atom?

-The incoming photon interacts with the force field around the nucleus then disappears. -Two particles reappear, each with equal energy (0.51 mEv). -The positron collides with a free electron and creates an annihilation reaction. -Annihilation reaction creates two photons at opposites angles to each other.

81

Reaction with matter that requires the energy of the photon to be extremely high.

Photodisintegration

82

What does Photodisintegration do to an atom?

-Incoming photon interacts with nucleus of atom, creating nuclear instability. -Nuclear fragment is given off as nucleus seeks stability

83

Common interaction in the nuclear industry

Photodisintegration

84

Measures exposure in air and is not used to express absorbed dose to individuals. A measure of ionization in air as a result of exposure to x-rays or gamma rays

Roentgen (Coulombs per Kilogram)

85

Measures the amount of energy absorbed in any medium, defined as 100 ergs of energy absorbed in 1 g of absorbing material

Radiation absorbed dose(rad) (Gray)

86

___ Gy = _____ rad

1 Gy = 100 rad

87

Unit of dose equivalence. Accounts for different types of radiation and their biologic effects

Radiation equivalent man (rem) (Sievert)

88

formula for rem

rem = rad × QF(quality factor)

89

Used to measure energy transferred from radiation to a material

Air Kerma

90

What is KERMA?

"kinetic energy released in matter"

91

Measures the activity of a radioactive material (radionuclide) Used in nuclear medicine and radiation therapy

Curie (Becquerel)

92

What is curie equal to?

1 Ci = 3.7 × 10^10 Bq

93

Who regulates the Standards of Exposure?

FDA and its Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH).

94

ALARA

As Low As Reasonably Achievable

95

Dose equivalent for radiation workers is based on radiation received from what source?

Occupational exposure

96

The annual whole-body effective dose limit for the occupational worker is ____ mSv (____ rem).

50 mSv (5 rem)

97

Two major parts of a cell.

Nucleus Cytoplasm

98

____% of cell content is water

80%

99

Two classes of human cells.

Somatic (any cell that is not a genetic cell) Genetic (will affect future generations)

100

Perform all the body's functions

Somatic Cells

101

How many chromosomes does a somatic cell posses?

46 (23 pairs)

102

Reproductive cells of an organism. Very radiosensitive.

Germ cells

103

How many chromosomes does a germ cell possess?

23

104

Two theories of cellular irradiation damage exist.

Direct-hit theory Indirect-hit theory

105

According to the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau, cells are more radiosensitive if they are __________.

Highly mitotic Primitive in structure

106

Cells are most sensitive to radiation during __________.

Active division (More immature/rapidly dividing)

107

Results of radiation to a cell

Cellular death Delayed mitosis Altered mitotic rate

108

Acute radiation syndrome stages. Requires large amounts of total body exposure.

Prodromal stage Latent period Manifest stage Recovery or death

109

Radiation Syndromes

Bone marrow syndrome Gastrointestinal syndrome Central nervous system syndrome -Results in eventual death.

110

Cardinal rules of protection of patient.

Time (lowest possible) Distance Shielding

111

Three popular monitoring technologies

Pocket dosimeter Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter(OSL) Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)

112

Personal radiation monitor that will provide a near immediate reading of radiation exposure.

Pocket dosimeter

113

Occupational Personnel Monitoring Rules

Worn at the collar level Worn outside of lead apron Device should face forward. Pregnant radiographers may have a second device worn at waist level and under the lead apron

114

Monthly equivalent dose to fetus should not exceed _____mSv (____ rem)

0.5 mSv (0.05 rem)

115

Diagnostic yield

Amount of clinically useful information on a diagnostic image. Must outweigh the input factors of the procedure ordered. (Is the correct test being ordered?)

116

Competent imaging professionals will strive to maximize diagnostic yield using a minimum of _________ factors.

input

117

Diagnostic efficacy

Accuracy of diagnostic information on a medical image. (Did the test provide the information that was needed?)

118

Any extraneous information on an image that does not reflect the patient's true medical condition _________ from diagnostic efficacy

detracts

119

What is included in the X-Ray Machine Design Features?

X-ray tube and x-ray tube support Collimator assembly Radiographic table X-ray generator and control Upright image receptor

120

Tube is inside the lead-lined tube housing. The X-Ray tube is made of ________ glass with high vacuum. The tube produces x-radiation when high-energy electricity passes through. Then X-radiation exits the tube through a window in the housing and is directed toward a patient.

Pyrex

121

The ___________ _______________ Projects a high-intensity light field on the patient, which represents the area of the x-ray field exposure.

Collimator Assembly

122

Collimation May be manual or automatic (PBL). What does PBL stand for?

Positive beam limitation

123

The radiographic Tabletop is highly ______________.

radiolucent

124

Tilting radiographic tables will tilt from __________ to __________ to __________. These tables typically do not have variable _________ capabilities.(used in fluroscopy)

Horizontal Vertical upright Trendelenburg Height

125

Within the tabletop, radiographic grid oscillates during exposure to blur out the ________ ________ ________.

lead grid lines

126

The interface between the radiographer and electronics of the x-ray machine

Control console

127

Three key factors for exposure technique.

kVp mA Time

128

Facilitate easy and efficient positioning of the x-ray tube assembly around the patient in any orientation.

X-Ray Tube Supports

129

Overhead Tubecrane (OTC) motions.

Longitudinally Vertically Transversely

130

Receives remnant radiation from patient and captures the x-ray energy for processing.

Image Receptor

131

Image Receptor technology is classified as __________ or __________.

Cassette-based (CR) Cassette-less (DR)

132

Cassette-based receptor systems.

Film-screen Computed radiography (CR)

133

Systems that use thin-film technology (TFTs).

DR systems (Referred to as flat panel technology)

134

Only radiation that is of any clinical value.

Radiation absorbed by detector Radiation able to be converted to an image

135

Converts x-ray to light before converting it to an electrical signal.

Indirect digital detector technology Photostimulable Phosphor (PSP) storage-phosphor technology computed radiography (CR)

136

CR plates are extra sensitive to ______ energy radiation after they have been exposed.

low

137

Technology that converts an x-ray into an electrical signal.

Direct digital detector technology

138

________ technology has improved spatial resolution and lower patient dose. It is more dose efficient.

DR

139

Provides live, real-time images of patients using x-rays.

Fluoroscopy

140

Fluoroscopy performed in surgery is typically accomplished with __________.

Portable C-arm system

141

Commonly referred to as a "portable"

Mobile X-Ray Imaging

142

Intercepts the x-ray photons that are able to exit the patient (remnant radiation). Converts the energy of x-rays into an image.

Image receptor (IR)

143

Classes of Diagnostic Radiographic Imaging.

Film-screen Computed Radiography (CR) Digital Radiography (DR) Fluoroscopic imaging (NOTE: there are also cassette-based and cassette-less systems)

144

Requirements for x-ray production.

1. Vacuum inside x-ray tube 2. Source of electrons 3. Method to accelerate electrons to great speed 4. Method to stop electrons

145

Source of electrons.

1. Cathode 2. Filament (Within the cathode)

146

Method to accelerate electrons to great speed

Voltage (kVp)

147

Method to stop electrons

Target(Anode)

148

Classes of Radiation

Primary radiation Scatter radiation Absorbed radiation Remnant radiation

149

Primary radiation

The radiation (beam of photons) before it interacts with a patient's body. (Leaves the tube)

150

Scatter radiation

Type of radiation that provides little diagnostic information to image. Detracts from image quality with the creation of 'fog'.

151

Absorbed radiation

Radiation that does not exit the patient.

152

Remnant radiation

Radiation that exits the patient and creates an image in the IR. Creates chemical changes within the receptor that are invisible.

153

What is the reason an x-ray tube must have a vacuum?

The vacuum removes all of the air so gas molecules will not interfere with the production of x-rays

154

Attenuation

Loss of radiation energy as a result of passing through an absorbing material (body).

155

High attenuation

Degree of attenuation that occurs in radiopaque matter. (X-rays cannot pass through.)

156

Low attenuation

Degree of attenuation that occurs in radiolucent matter.

157

Differential absorption

Different materials absorb radiation energy differently based primarily upon density and atomic number.

158

Latent image

Invisible image created after exposure but before processing. (It must be processed to convert it to a visible image)

159

Considered an analog type of imaging

Film-screen systems

160

photostimulable phosphor (PSP) technology or storage phosphor technology

Computed radiography (CR)

161

Two methods of digital image capture. Can be indirect or direct?

Digital radiography (DR)

162

Digital radiography key features.

Uses no cassettes Image is displayed in seconds Detectors can be direct or indirect Uses thin-film transistors (TFT) Image brightness is not the same as radiographic density and is not related to exposure

163

Direct

Type capture that x-ray photons are immediately converted into an electrical signal.

164

Indirect

Type capture that x-ray photons are converted to light and then converted into an electronic signal.

165

Determines image quality in digital cassette-less systems. The more _________ the better the image.

Pixels

166

How do Film-screen systems work?

Intensifying screens convert the X-ray energy to light, and light energy creates chemical changes in film.

167

Exposed X-ray film is chemically processed in a ________ _____________ automatic processor.

wet chemistry

168

Exposure Index (EI)

A numeric representation of total x-ray exposure to the receptor. It is not an indicator of the patient's absorbed dose.

169

Prime technical exposure factors that a radiographer has direct control over.

Milliampere-second (mAs) Kilovoltage peak (kVp) Source-to-image distance (SID)

170

A proper balance between _____________ and __________ qualities is required for optimum image quality.

photographic and geometric

171

Photographic qualities

affecting the visibility of the image

172

The two primary image photographic quality factors:

IR exposure/Density Contrast

173

Geometric qualities

Contribute to image quality by affecting image resolution, size, and shape. Affect sharpness and accuracy of the image. Also known as recorded detail, sharpness of detail, and definition.

174

radiographic density

The overall darkness or blackness of an image as demonstrated on a polyester-based film media

175

What aspects primarily affects Image Receptor Exposure?

milliamperage (mA), exposure time (S), source-to-image distance (SID), kVp

176

mAs

Determines how many x-rays are produced by the x-ray tube. (It directly controls the quantity of x-ray photons produced)

177

quantity of x-ray production

mA

178

What is the relationship between mAs and density?

Directly proportional If the mAs is doubled the density is doubled. If the mAs is halved the density is halved

179

_____________ is the electrical current passing through the xray tube

mA

180

_____ is the duration of the exposure

S Can be expressed in decimals, fractions or milliseconds

181

mAs reciprocity law

Regardless of the mA and time combinations, the same mAs value will yield the same exposure

182

kVp

Measure of the electrical pressure forcing the current through the tube. It controls penetrating ability of the beam. (It affects the quality and quantity of x-ray photons produced)

183

X-ray beam is ______________ or _______________________.

poly-energetic or heterogeneous.

184

Higher kVp values _________ skin exposure to patients.

reduce

185

Increasing kVp ?% will double image receptor exposure

15

186

To maintain exposure, if increasing kVp by 15%, must ________ mAs

half

187

Grid

Used to reduce scatter. It intercepts a portion of the remnant radiation and improves image quality. Requires higher exposure technique when used.

188

SID

Distance between point of x-ray emission in the x-ray tube (focal spot) and the IR. (It affects intensity of radiation that reaches the IR as well as the geometric properties of the image)

189

What law deals with distance and intensity?

Inverse Square Law

190

What is the formula for the Inverse Square Law?

I1/I2= D2²/D1²

191

What law deals with distance and mAs?

Direct Square Law

192

What is the formula for the Direct Square Law?

mAs1/mAs2 = D1²/D2²

193

Can improve image quality and reduce dose as well as control scatter

Beam modification

194

Two types of primary beam modification:

-Filtration -Beam limitation (collimation)

195

Beam modification that involves use of attenuating material (aluminum) and removes low energy x-ray photons to decrease patient exposure. The more __________ used, the less intense the beam.

Filtration

196

Beam modification that decreases patient dose as well as improving image quality.

Beam limitation (collimation)

197

Factors affecting recorded detail

Motion Object unsharpness Focal spot size SID OID Material unsharpness Distortion

198

Most common cause of image unsharpness.

Motion distortion (Caused by voluntary and involuntary patient motion)

199

Object unsharpness

Loss in resolution caused by the inherent shape of the patient's anatomic structures relative to the divergence of the x-ray beam.

200

Optimum use of __________, __________, and __________ can lessen object unsharpness.

Focal point size OID SID (Increased SID makes image sharper)

201

The smaller the focal spot size, the __________ the detail.

Greater

202

Distortion

Any misrepresentation of the true size or shape of the patient's anatomy.

203

Two types of distortion.

Size Shape

204

Size distortion is minimized by using _________ and __________.

Longer SIDs Minimum OIDs

205

Shape distortion

Distortion controlled by alignment of central ray, patient's anatomy, and IR. It is also called 'true distortion'.

206

Deliberate distortion

Accomplished by angling or rotating the patient relative to the central ray. Helps overcome superimposition of anatomic structures.

207

Image density

Overall darkness or blackness of an image. It is directly related to x-ray exposure hitting the IR.

208

Half-Value layer

Term used for the amount of absorbing material that will reduce the intensity of the x-ray beam to half its original value. It is a way to express x-ray beam quality.

209

_________________ is most popular filtration material.

Aluminum

210

_________ detect the remnant radiation from the patient and convert it into chemical or electrical changes that make up the latent image

IRs

211

Three types of image receptors

Film/screen systems -Close to obsolescence Storage phosphor technology (CR) Flat-panel detectors using thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology

212

CR Technology

Exposed IP in cassette is placed in a reader for electronic processing of the latent image into a manifest image displayed on a monitor. Ultimately creates a digital image through computer software

213

Exposure to plate is stored in ___________ _________ ________ that create electron "traps."

barium fluorohalide crystals

214

Underexposure will produce an image that is "grainy" or noisy due to _____________.

quantum mottle

215

How does CR work?

-Cassette with IP placed in CR reader -Reader scans the IP with laser energy and recovers the energy from the electron traps -Energy converts into manifest image

216

__________ detector uses cesium iodide as a scintillator with amorphous silicon.

Indirect

217

Digital Cassetteless Systems use ____________ arranged in a matrix

Detector elements(DEL)

218

How does Indirect Detector Technology work?

-Uses a scintillator material bonded to amorphous silicon -Scintillator receives the X-ray energy and converts it to light energy. -Light energy is captured by amorphous silicon and converted to electrons. -Electrons are collected by TFT and sent to computer.

219

uses amorphous silicon (aSi)

Indirect DR

220

Digital detectors possess ___________ exposure latitude than conventional film-screen systems.

greater

221

DR systems can be operated at varying system sensitivities, known as ___________ _________.

system speed

222

How does Direct Detector Technology work?

.-Uses amorphous selenium as the active detector material -Uses TFT to capture electrons from X-ray interactions -TFT collects and amplifies the electron signal. -Electron signals are converted to computer data and displayed as an image.

223

uses amorphous selenium (aSe)

Direct DR

224

controls image brightness.

window level

225

controls contrast.

Window width (WW)

226

During __________, x-ray exposures are much less than radiographic exposures. Use of x-rays to create real-time images of patient anatomy and function Images taken are digital images and can be played back for review or sent to an archival system for long term storage (PACs)

Fluoroscopy

227

Defines the purpose of the hospital's existence and provides guidance in its community service.

Hospital Mission Statement

228

What the governance of a hospital begins with:

Board of directors (governing board)

229

Who are hospital divisions and departments accountable to?

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

230

Responsible for recruitment, retention, benefits, and compensation of all employees who work in the hospital.

Human resources department

231

Sub-departments of radiology.

Diagnostic radiography Ultrasound (US) Nuclear medicine (NM) Positron emission tomography (PET) Computed tomography (CT) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Interventional radiology (IR) (special procedures)

232

Typically reports directly to upper hospital administration, requires strong business management skills, and works closely with the Medical Director of Radiology. Not necessarily a radiologic technologist.

Administrative Director of Radiology

233

Principle responsibility is for overseeing the quality of patient care, works closely with the Administrative Director, and may also serve as the Department Chair. Typically a physician.

Medical Director

234

The primary functions of management.

Planning Organizing and facilitating Staffing Directing Controlling Coordinating

235

Key management traits

Leadership skills "Coaching" staff

236

Functions of management are evolving from the traditional roles of directing and controlling employees to leading, coaching, and supporting employees. The influence for this change comes from the movement toward __________, __________, or __________.

Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) Total Quality Management (TQM) Performance Improvement (PI)

237

Regulates the quality and safety of care provided to patients and the way a health care organization is supervised and operated

The Joint Commission (TJC)

238

Federal agency that establishes standards for safety in the workplace.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

239

Regulate operations in a hospital. Vary from hospital to hospital and are typically committee based.

Internal regulatory agencies

240

List of internal regulatory groups.

Safety Committee Infection Control Committee Radiation Safety Committee Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee Risk Management and Corporate Compliance Picture Archive and Communications Systems (PACs

241

Education as a medical imaging professional will include three areas of learning:

-Cognitive -Affective -Psychomotor

242

Cognitive

Area of learning (domain) that includes behaviors requiring various levels of thought: knowledge, understanding, reason, and judgment.

243

Affective

Area of learning (domain) that includes behaviors guided by feelings and emotions that are influenced by an individual's interests, attitudes, values, and beliefs

244

Psychomotor

Area of learning (domain) that includes behaviors involving physical actions, neuromuscular manipulations, and coordination.

245

Component of the radiography curriculum that includes procedures and activities that occur in the clinical educational settings.

Clinical

246

What is the purpose of clinical education?

To provide an environment in which the student can transfer learning from the didactic and laboratory settings to real-world patient-care experiences has one-on-one patient experience

247

During clinical experiences, interactions with _________, __________, __________, and __________ occur.

Inpatients, Outpatients, Emergency patients, and Specialty patients of all ages

248

Component of the radiography curriculum that deals with informational and instructional activities related to radiography.

Didactic

249

Settings in which didactic activities occur:

1. Classroom 2. Lab 3. Instructional media viewing area 4. Learning resource center

250

Instructional (didactic) activity should be well planned with __________, __________, and __________ provided for the students.

1. Documented goals 2. Objectives 3. Learning activities

251

Setting that serves as a bridge to connect classroom with clinical activities.

Lab

252

Is exemplified in the clinical education component of radiography education with the students recalling prior knowledge learned and using this knowledge in performing radiographic procedures to develop both the skills and the confidence to work with a wide variety of patients.

The principle of transfer of learning

253

Learning is a __________.

Continuum

254

The learning process is based on __________, __________, and __________.

1. Performance objectives 2. Learning observed by way of competencies 3. Learning outcomes

255

Must be performed independently, consistently, and effectively.

Clinical competence

256

The professional organization that provides a curriculum articulating educational guidelines to ensure that entry level radiographers posses the necessary skills and knowledge for practice.

American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT)

257

The accrediting body for the profession that establishes standards for educational programs incorporating the ASRT curriculum.

Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology JRCERT

258

The professional certifying agency which identifies the minimum didactic and clinical competency requirements for certification.

American Registry for Radiology Technology

259

According to __________, the program (Clinical Education) is to provide a well-structured competency-based curriculum that prepares students to practice in the professional discipline.

Standards for an Accredited Educational Program in Radiography

260

Developed Standards for an Accredited Educational Program in Radiography.

JRCERT

261

Individuals who work together to assist the student in understanding and accomplishing the goals and objectives of the program.

1. Program director 2. Didactic faculty 3. Clinical coordinator 4. Clinical faculty 5. Clinical staff

262

What are the two types of general categories for competencies for Radiography?

1. Procedural 2. General patient care

263

How many mandatory general patient care activities are there?

10

264

How many mandatory imaging procedures are there?

37

265

How many elective imaging procedures must you complete?

15 elective imaging procedures selected from a list of 34 procedures •1 of the 15 elective procedures must be from the head section • 2 of the 15 elective procedures must be selected from the fluoroscopy section • 1 of which must be either Upper GI or contrast enema

266

Qualified practitioner is present during the exam

Direct Supervision

267

Qualified practitioner is adjacent to the room or location to assist students

Indirect Supervision

268

What does TeamSTEPPS stand for?

Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety

269

What is SBAR?

a structured communication process that provides for accurate sharing of patient information between health care workers when patient hand off occurs.

270

4 elements of SBAR:

1. Situation 2. Background 3. Assessment 4. Recommendation

271

Phases of clinical learning:

Observation Assistance Performance

272

Stress

Produced by life events that place a perceived demand on daily activities, Causes emotional and biologic changes in the body

273

A prolonged state of constant alert over time; can result in serious __________ or _________ illness.

physical or emotional

274

Fight - or - Flight response

Physiologic response to real or imagined threat arising from emotions of both fear and anger.

275

Physiologic responses of fight or flight include:

1. Increased metabolism and fats/sugars 2. Release of hormones 3. Increased blood flow and cardiac output 4. Stimulated central nervous system

276

Strategies to deal with stress.

1. Self- image is important 2. Understand environment around you that is adding to your stress 3. Adopt a strategy of positive thoughts/emotions 4. Learn to politely say "no" to those who want to place extraordinary demands on you

277

Signs of stress.

1. Are physiologic 2. Family/friends can often sense your stress 3. Emotions may be noticeably altered 4. Stressors vary

278

Stressors

Any event that adds stress. It is unique to the individual and best dealt with by using strategies to "buffer" the stress event. Recognize that many of these are out of your control.

279

Strategies to deal with stressors.

1. Know difference between stressors and a "hassle" 2. Recognize your stress 3. Plan positive activities to balance effects of hassles and stressors 4. Avoid conversations with "out - of - control" language and replace it with "in - control" language 5. Take responsibility for yourself 6. Understand the "worry" process and that all stress can never be eliminated completely

280

_________ is a "worry contributor."

Procrastination

281

"Worry" Survival techniques.

1. Avoid procrastination 2. Take control of worry process 3. Identify events over which you have some degree of control and exercise it accordingly 4. Understand most worrisome events never turn out as your thought they would 5. Don't build "worry" mountains

282

Time as a stressor:

1. Practice time-management 2. Avoid indecisiveness when making choices 3. Set realistic completion times 4. Practice self-management

283

_____________ can help reduce harmful effects of stress.

Stress buffers

284

Examples of stress buffers.

1. Exercise 2. Proper nutrition 3. Introspective visualization and meditation

285

Good study skills process.

1. Review material as soon as it's introduced 2. Use as many senses as possible 3. Plan regular schedule of study 4. Plan study group 5. Attitude helps with remembering (Keep positive attitude)

286

Test taking tips.

1. Avoid last minute cramming 2. Wear bright colors 3. Avoid heavy, high carbohydrate meal 4. Arrive early and prepare mentally 5. Scan entire test to develop strategy 6. Review test carefully and make appropriate corrections 7. When done, put the test behind you

287

____________ involves sound professional judgment applied with high ethical standards and integrity.

Critical thinking

288

Problem and Critical thinking steps.

1. Identify/clarify problem 2. Perform objective analysis of problem 3. Develop realistic solution 4. Consider all viable solutions 5. Select best solution and implement it

289

Medical radiation sciences uses ----- to create images of the human body.

energy

290

Radiation

Energy that is transmitted by waves through space or through a medium (matter).

291

Energy

the capacity to do work

292

Ionization

Process by which a neutral atom gains or loses an electron, thus gaining a net charge.

293

Medical Radiation Sciences

Uses energy to create images of the human body. Various energy forms may be used and some energies create ionizations in human tissue

294

What are the energy forms for imaging?

Electromagnetic -X-rays (ionizing) -Radio waves Sound -Medical sonography Electrical -Electrocardiography Heat (thermal) -Thermography Magnetic -Magnetic resonance imaging Nuclear -Gamma radiation

295

How are x-rays created?

X-rays are created when high-speed electrons are slowed or suddenly stopped.

296

Radiography

Uses electromagnetic energy in the form of x-rays to create medical images.

297

Medical Sonography

Field study that creates images by recording reflected sound waves. It is non-ionizing and has a wide variety of medical applications.

298

Non-ionizing radiation

Radiation that has enough energy to move atoms in a molecule around or cause them to vibrate, but not enough to remove electrons

299

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Uses the energy of high-strength magnetic fields and radio waves to create images of the human body; Non-ionizing imaging modality

300

CT Scanning

Uses x-ray energy and sophisticated software to create sectional images of the human body. Creates hundreds of views of patient anatomy.

301

Methods of Electrical imaging.

1. Electrocardiography 2. Electroencephalography

302

Electrocardiography

Method of imaging the electrical activities of the heart.

303

Electroencephalography

Method of imaging the electrical activities of the brain

304

Nuclear Medicine

Uses the energy of the atom to create medical images

305

Nuclear Medicine Technology uses energy to create images of both __________and __________.

1. Anatomic structures 2. Physiologic actions

306

What is nuclear medicines energy form? How are they made?

gamma radiation. Uses radioactive isotopes to create gamma radiation

307

What type of imaging requires the use of a catheter and the injection of x-ray contrast material to visualize anatomy?

Cardiovascular Interventional Imaging

308

Radiation Therapy

Uses very-highenergy ionizing radiation to treat malignant tumors (cancer)

309

Thermograms

Images produced by the body's naturally emitted heat energy that can be useful in demonstrating conditions such as changes in the body's circulation.

310

Who was the German physicist that discovered the x-rays? When?

Wilhelm C. Rontgen, November 8, 1895

311

What was Rontgen's first known x-ray image?

His wife's hand

312

Crookes Tube

Large, partially evacuated glass tube made up of a cathode and anode attached to an electrical supply invented by Sir William Crookes. It is also the forerunner of the modern x-ray tube.

313

The Crookes Tube was also called a __________.

"Cathode Ray" tube

314

Received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

Rontgen

315

Predominantly a diagnostic service that focuses on imaging of patients to diagnose their medical condition

Radiology

316

What are most health careers referred to as?

Allied Health

317

What are the three different classifications for organizations?

1. Accreditation 2. Certification 3. Professional Organizations

318

Accreditation

A process to ensure high quality of operations and offerings. Sets conditions under which new members qualify for entry into the profession.

319

List of Accreditation agencies.

1. Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT) 2. Joint Review Committee on Education in Diagnostic Medical Sonography (JRCDMS) 3. Joint Review Committee on Education in Nuclear Medicine Technology (JRCNMT)

320

JRCERT

Agency concerned with compliance with education standards developed by and for the profession of radiologic technology. Governed by a Board of Directors known as the Joint Review Committee. Requires demonstrated compliance with minimum requirements known as the Essentials and Guidelines or Standards.

321

What year was JRCERT established?

1969

322

Programs JRCERT currently accredits in.

1. Radiography 2. Radiation Therapy Technology 3. Medical Dosimetry 4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

323

JRCDMS

Agency concerned with compliance with education standards developed by and for the profession of medical sonography. It is sponsored by 9 organizations and currently accredits approximately 170 institutions dealing with medical sonography.

324

JRCNMT

Agency concerned with the education standards developed by and for the profession of nuclear medicine technology. Currently accredits approximately 100 nuclear medicine technology programs and is sponsored by 4 organizations.

325

Certification

Deals with the demonstration of minimum competencies in recognized professional skills and knowledge. It is a voluntary process highly sought after by professionals within health care. It is your personal responsibility to achieve and maintain. Once achieved, you will be listed in a national registry. Provides the privilege of displaying professional credentials as earned.

326

Popular Certification Agencies in Medical Imaging.

1. American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) 1922 2. American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (ARDMS) 1975 3. Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) 1977

327

List of a Professional Society's duties.

1. Education 2. Scholarships 3. Research and special reports 4. Governmental affairs and appointments 5. Malpractice insurance plans