Pathology Test 1

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1

What are the two classifying diseases talked about in class in terms of their x-ray attenuation?

Fluid and matter. They're both absorbed/attenuated by Xray. Matter absorbs base on atomic #

2

Why is it important to define and recognize terminology & vocabulary as it pertains to radiology?

Certain diseases absorb xrays and others allow xrays to pass straight through.

3

Fluids absorbed by xray casts what on the image?

Fluids get absorbed by xray casting a shadow on the image.

4

Air is absorbed by xray and appears what on the image?

Air gets absorbed by xray and appears black on the image.

5

What is Prefix?

beginning of the word

Gives a good clue where and what it is.

6

Med term: Sub-

below

7

Med term: Trans-

across

8

Med term: Retro-

behind/ back of

9

What is Mastectomy?

mast = breast

ectomy = removal of

10

What is Encephalitis?

encephal = brain

itis = inflamation/swelling

11

What is Subdural?

sub = beneath/below

dural = skin

12

What is bradycardia?

brady = slow

cardia = heart

slow heart rate

13

What is dysphagia?

dys = bad, difficulty

phagia = swallow

difficulty swallowing

14

What is opposite medical terminology for brady?

trachy

15

Vocabulary & Term: Pathology

the study of diseases

16

Vocabulary & Term: Etiology

Study of causes of disease

17

Vocabulary & Term: Symptoms (Subjective)

changes perceived by the patient

18

Examples of Symptoms (Subjective)

cough, difficulty breathing, sneezing, sweating, SOB

19

Vocabulary & Term: Sign (Objective)

signs of observed/visualized by a healthcare professional such as you, nurse or doctor.

20

Examples of Sign (Objective)

You visualize bruises on the body.

21

Vocabulary & Term: Test

An analysis of a specimen obtained from the patient.

22

Examples of Test

Blood work, urine sample, fecal, microbiologic, etc.

23

Vocabulary & Term: Procedure

requires some sort of manipulation from the patient by moving, poking, or picking the patient.

24

Example of Procedures

biopsies, endoscopy, discogram (insert a needle into the vertebra space with contrast), myogram (in Fluoro) inject contrast into the cerebral fluid.

25

What are the three types of illnesses?

Idiopathic, latrogenic, and nosocomial

26

Types of illnesses: What is Idiopathic?

study of the cause of disease;

a disease whose causes are unknown.

27

Types of illnesses: What is Iatrogenic?

related to illness caused by medical examination/treatment.

It is an adverse reaction to treatment from a physician.

28

Example of Iatrogenic

UTI, the doctor prescribes an antibiotic for the patient and she gets a yeast infection.

29

Types of illnesses: What is Nosocomial?

infections picked up from the hospital

30

What is the medical terminology for heart attack?

Myocardial Infarction (MI) - from a clot or stenosis.

31

What is Ischemia?

inadequate blood supply in the muscle

32

What can an ischemia cause?

It can cause infarction and necrosis

33

What is infarction?

large area of dead tissue

34

What is necrosis?

Death of tissue that turns black

35

What is acute?

begin very quickley

36

What is Chronic?

Progresses slowly over time.

37

What is Hemorrhage?

internal bleeding

38

What is Anoxia?

lack of oxygen

39

What is thrombus?

blood clot

40

What is CVA?

cerebral vascular accident

41

What is embolus?

a blood clot, air bubble, piece of fatty deposit which has been carried in the bloodstream to lodge in the vessel.

42

What is atophy? Give an example.

progressively wasting away of the body part.

Ex: cast on an arm loses muscle in the area it covers.

43

What are the 5 inflammation indications?

Skin reddening, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function.

44

Inflammation indication 1: What is happening during skin reddening phase?

redness of the skin/mucus membrane caused by hyperemia in capillaries.

45

Inflammation indication 2: Why does the area causes swelling?

hitting nerves ending, edema

46

Inflammation indication 3: Why is the area Heat/hot?

Bunch of blood cell in small area

47

Inflammation indication 4: Pain

hurt to touch

48

Inflammation indication 5: Why is there loss of function?

Body's natural tendency of protecting the body part.

49

Common Problems: What is transudates?

serum looking fluid (clear) that passes through the membrane to tissue due to pressure issues.

50

Common Problems: What is Exudate (Pus)?

protein enriched pus you find in a blister, burn or inflammation

51

Common Problems: What is Abscess?

lesion filled with pus. Could be found in the muscle or skin.

52

Common Problems: What is empyema?

pus in the pleural space (lungs). Prescribed antibiotics and uses a tube to suck/remove the pus.

53

Common Problems: What is Cellulitis?

spreading of infection throughout the subcutaneous tissue caused by streptococcal bacteria.

***Serious bacterial skin infection

54

What are the two types of tissue repair?

Regeneration

fibrous connective tissue repair

55

What is regeneration tissue repair?

where tissue is damaged but it repairs itself with identical tissues

56

What is fibrous connective tissue repair?

where the tissue doesn't repair itself and causes a scar. The function does not restore so you lose feeling/touch as well.

57

What are the 3 growth disturbances?

Hyperplasia, Neoplasm, Metaplasia

58

Growth disturbances: What is Hyperplasia?

overgrowth tissue due to excessive cell

Hyper-: high, beyond, excessive/above normal

-plasia: to form/formation

59

Growth disturbances: What is Neoplasm?

neo- new, young, fresh, recent

-plasm tumor

60

Growth disturbances: What is metaplasia?

When normal cells turn into abnormal (cancerous) cells.

meta- change to

-plasia: to form/formation

61

What are the 3 types of tumors and cancers?

Benign, malignant, metastasis

62

what is a benign cancer/tumor?

noncancerous; it is not an immediate threat but it should be monitored.

63

what is a malignant cancer/tumor?

it is dangerous; it is an uncontrollable growth and is known as the worse type of cancer.

64

what is a metastasis cancer/tumor?

it is the spread of cancer by direct contact via the bloodstream or lymph node.

65

What are the stages of cancer?

T, N, & M

66

What do T refer to when it comes to staging cancer?

the size of cancer. The larger the number the more dangerous it is.

67

What do N refer to when it comes to staging cancer?

refers to the lymph node involvement. N0: no lymph node involved. N1, N2, N3: the number and location of lymph nodes that contain cancer. The higher the number after the N, the more lymph nodes that contain cancer.

68

What do M refer to when it comes to staging cancer?

M0: no metastasis/spreading; M2: spreading

69

T2N1M2 indicates?

Stage 2 cancer involving 1 lymph node and spreading

70

Cancers arises from which four types?

Carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma

71

What is carcinoma?

cancer arising from the epithelial tissue

72

What is sarcoma?

cancer arising from the connective tissue

73

What is leukemia?

cancer arising from the white blood

74

What is lymphoma?

cancer arising from the lymphatic system

75

What is Lytic?

Breaking something down, decomposing, reducing, or distroying

76

What is sclerotic?

abnormal hardening

77

What is acute?

sudden pain, begins quickly

78

What is chronic?

pain that happens slowly over a period of time.

79

What is parthogenesis?

sequence of events that led to those observed changes.

Patho- : disease

-genesis: creation of something/beginning

80

What is prognosis?

Prediction: poor, slim to no chances of surviving, not getting better

81

What is diagnosis?

Actual test/exam that indicates the disease.

82

What is palliative treatment?

use therapy/medication to reduce the uncomfortable pain.

83

What is asymptomatic?

lack of symptoms. Show no sign of illness.

84

What is congenital?

disease present at birth, genetic disease

85

What is the medical term for CVA?

cerebrovascular accident aka stroke

86

What is Dysphagia?

dys-: difficult

-phagia: swallow

difficulty swallowing

87

What is melena?

dark/black stool; bleeding of the upper GI.

88

What is carcinogenic?

substance/compound/chemical that can cause cancer

Carcino-: cancer

-genic: causes

89

What is an aneurysm?

dilation, out patching, ballooning of the vessel

90

What is stenosis?

constriction of something or narrowing

91

Medication terms: QD

everyday

92

Medication terms: BID

Bi-daily (2x/day)

93

Medication terms: TID

Three, 3x/day

94

Medication terms: QID

Quad, 4x/day

95

Medication terms: NOP

Nothing by mouth