Pathology Test 1
What are the two classifying diseases talked about in class in terms of their x-ray attenuation?
Fluid and matter. They're both absorbed/attenuated by Xray. Matter absorbs base on atomic #
Why is it important to define and recognize terminology & vocabulary as it pertains to radiology?
Certain diseases absorb xrays and others allow xrays to pass straight through.
Fluids absorbed by xray casts what on the image?
Fluids get absorbed by xray casting a shadow on the image.
Air is absorbed by xray and appears what on the image?
Air gets absorbed by xray and appears black on the image.
What is Prefix?
beginning of the word
Gives a good clue where and what it is.
Med term: Sub-
Med term: Trans-
Med term: Retro-
behind/ back of
What is Mastectomy?
mast = breast
ectomy = removal of
What is Encephalitis?
encephal = brain
itis = inflamation/swelling
What is Subdural?
sub = beneath/below
dural = skin
What is bradycardia?
brady = slow
cardia = heart
slow heart rate
What is dysphagia?
dys = bad, difficulty
phagia = swallow
What is opposite medical terminology for brady?
Vocabulary & Term: Pathology
the study of diseases
Vocabulary & Term: Etiology
Study of causes of disease
Vocabulary & Term: Symptoms (Subjective)
changes perceived by the patient
Examples of Symptoms (Subjective)
cough, difficulty breathing, sneezing, sweating, SOB
Vocabulary & Term: Sign (Objective)
signs of observed/visualized by a healthcare professional such as you, nurse or doctor.
Examples of Sign (Objective)
You visualize bruises on the body.
Vocabulary & Term: Test
An analysis of a specimen obtained from the patient.
Examples of Test
Blood work, urine sample, fecal, microbiologic, etc.
Vocabulary & Term: Procedure
requires some sort of manipulation from the patient by moving, poking, or picking the patient.
Example of Procedures
biopsies, endoscopy, discogram (insert a needle into the vertebra space with contrast), myogram (in Fluoro) inject contrast into the cerebral fluid.
What are the three types of illnesses?
Idiopathic, latrogenic, and nosocomial
Types of illnesses: What is Idiopathic?
study of the cause of disease;
a disease whose causes are unknown.
Types of illnesses: What is Iatrogenic?
related to illness caused by medical examination/treatment.
It is an adverse reaction to treatment from a physician.
Example of Iatrogenic
UTI, the doctor prescribes an antibiotic for the patient and she gets a yeast infection.
Types of illnesses: What is Nosocomial?
infections picked up from the hospital
What is the medical terminology for heart attack?
Myocardial Infarction (MI) - from a clot or stenosis.
What is Ischemia?
inadequate blood supply in the muscle
What can an ischemia cause?
It can cause infarction and necrosis
What is infarction?
large area of dead tissue
What is necrosis?
Death of tissue that turns black
What is acute?
begin very quickley
What is Chronic?
Progresses slowly over time.
What is Hemorrhage?
What is Anoxia?
lack of oxygen
What is thrombus?
What is CVA?
cerebral vascular accident
What is embolus?
a blood clot, air bubble, piece of fatty deposit which has been carried in the bloodstream to lodge in the vessel.
What is atophy? Give an example.
progressively wasting away of the body part.
Ex: cast on an arm loses muscle in the area it covers.
What are the 5 inflammation indications?
Skin reddening, swelling, heat, pain, and loss of function.
Inflammation indication 1: What is happening during skin reddening phase?
redness of the skin/mucus membrane caused by hyperemia in capillaries.
Inflammation indication 2: Why does the area causes swelling?
hitting nerves ending, edema
Inflammation indication 3: Why is the area Heat/hot?
Bunch of blood cell in small area
Inflammation indication 4: Pain
hurt to touch
Inflammation indication 5: Why is there loss of function?
Body's natural tendency of protecting the body part.
Common Problems: What is transudates?
serum looking fluid (clear) that passes through the membrane to tissue due to pressure issues.
Common Problems: What is Exudate (Pus)?
protein enriched pus you find in a blister, burn or inflammation
Common Problems: What is Abscess?
lesion filled with pus. Could be found in the muscle or skin.
Common Problems: What is empyema?
pus in the pleural space (lungs). Prescribed antibiotics and uses a tube to suck/remove the pus.
Common Problems: What is Cellulitis?
spreading of infection throughout the subcutaneous tissue caused by streptococcal bacteria.
***Serious bacterial skin infection
What are the two types of tissue repair?
fibrous connective tissue repair
What is regeneration tissue repair?
where tissue is damaged but it repairs itself with identical tissues
What is fibrous connective tissue repair?
where the tissue doesn't repair itself and causes a scar. The function does not restore so you lose feeling/touch as well.
What are the 3 growth disturbances?
Hyperplasia, Neoplasm, Metaplasia
Growth disturbances: What is Hyperplasia?
overgrowth tissue due to excessive cell
Hyper-: high, beyond, excessive/above normal
-plasia: to form/formation
Growth disturbances: What is Neoplasm?
neo- new, young, fresh, recent
Growth disturbances: What is metaplasia?
When normal cells turn into abnormal (cancerous) cells.
meta- change to
-plasia: to form/formation
What are the 3 types of tumors and cancers?
Benign, malignant, metastasis
what is a benign cancer/tumor?
noncancerous; it is not an immediate threat but it should be monitored.
what is a malignant cancer/tumor?
it is dangerous; it is an uncontrollable growth and is known as the worse type of cancer.
what is a metastasis cancer/tumor?
it is the spread of cancer by direct contact via the bloodstream or lymph node.
What are the stages of cancer?
T, N, & M
What do T refer to when it comes to staging cancer?
the size of cancer. The larger the number the more dangerous it is.
What do N refer to when it comes to staging cancer?
refers to the lymph node involvement. N0: no lymph node involved. N1, N2, N3: the number and location of lymph nodes that contain cancer. The higher the number after the N, the more lymph nodes that contain cancer.
What do M refer to when it comes to staging cancer?
M0: no metastasis/spreading; M2: spreading
Stage 2 cancer involving 1 lymph node and spreading
Cancers arises from which four types?
Carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, and lymphoma
What is carcinoma?
cancer arising from the epithelial tissue
What is sarcoma?
cancer arising from the connective tissue
What is leukemia?
cancer arising from the white blood
What is lymphoma?
cancer arising from the lymphatic system
What is Lytic?
Breaking something down, decomposing, reducing, or distroying
What is sclerotic?
What is acute?
sudden pain, begins quickly
What is chronic?
pain that happens slowly over a period of time.
What is parthogenesis?
sequence of events that led to those observed changes.
Patho- : disease
-genesis: creation of something/beginning
What is prognosis?
Prediction: poor, slim to no chances of surviving, not getting better
What is diagnosis?
Actual test/exam that indicates the disease.
What is palliative treatment?
use therapy/medication to reduce the uncomfortable pain.
What is asymptomatic?
lack of symptoms. Show no sign of illness.
What is congenital?
disease present at birth, genetic disease
What is the medical term for CVA?
cerebrovascular accident aka stroke
What is Dysphagia?
What is melena?
dark/black stool; bleeding of the upper GI.
What is carcinogenic?
substance/compound/chemical that can cause cancer
What is an aneurysm?
dilation, out patching, ballooning of the vessel
What is stenosis?
constriction of something or narrowing
Medication terms: QD
Medication terms: BID
Medication terms: TID
Medication terms: QID
Medication terms: NOP
Nothing by mouth