Vocabulary Blood

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1

Plasma

is a straw-colored, sticky fluid. Although it is mostly water (about 90%), plasma contains over 100 different dissolved solutes, including nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes and products of cell activity, ions, and proteins.

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Formed elements

one of the red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets as contrasted with the fluid portion of the blood

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Erythrocytes

Red blood cell

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Leukocyte

White blood cell (WBCs), are only formed elements that are complete cells, with nuclei and the usual organelles.

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Granulocyte

which include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, are all roughly spherical in shape. They are larger and much shorter lived (in most cases) than erythrocytes. They characteristically have lobed nuclei Functionally, all granulocytes are phagocytes to a greater or lesser degree.

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Neutrophil

WBC 50-70% multi-lobed, acute infection

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Eosinocyte

WBC 2-4% bi-lobed, parasites

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Basophil

WBC .05-1% large purplish-black cytoplasmic granules, Inflammatory Infection

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Agranulocyte

include lymphocytes and monocytes,WBCs that lack visible cytoplasmic granules. Although they are similar structurally, they are functionally distinct and unrelated cell types.

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Lymphocyte

25-45% spherical nucleus, Immunity

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Monophil

WBC 3-8% kidney shaped nucleus, Chronic Infection

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Platelets -

...

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Buffy Coat

present at the erythrocyte-plasma junction. This layer contains leukocytes (leuko = white), the white blood cells that act in various ways to protect the body, and platelets, cell fragments that help stop bleeding.

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Hematocrit

The total volume of erythrocytes within a blood sample, which normally constitute about 45%

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Hematocrit

The total volume of erythrocytes within a blood sample, which normally constitute about 45%

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Oxyhemoglobin

what hemoglobin is called when oxygen binds to iron.

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Deoxyhemoglobin

when oxygen detaches from hemoglobin

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Carbaminohemoglobin

When carbon dioxide binds to hemoglobin, lowering hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen

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Hematopoiesis

the process of blood cell formation

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Red bone marrow

where blood cells are formed

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Hemocytoblast

generalized stem cell, from which all blood cells form

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Erythropoiesis

Erythrocyte production

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Myeloid stem cell

hemocytoblast descendant which will become a Erythrocyte

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Proerythroblast

...

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Reticulocyte

essentially a young erythrocyte, so named because it still contains a scant reticulum (network) of clumped ribosomes.

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Erythropoietin (EPO)

a glycoprotein hormone which directly stimulates for erythrocyte formation.

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Bilirubin

is the yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. Heme is found in hemoglobin, a principal component of red blood cells. Bilirubin is excreted in bile and urine, and elevated levels may indicate certain diseases. It is responsible for the yellow color of bruises, the background straw-yellow color of urine

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Anemia

(“lacking blood”) is a condition in which the blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.

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Hemorrhagic anemias

result from blood loss.

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hemolytic anemias

erythrocytes rupture, or lyse, prematurely.

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Pernicious anemia

is due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.

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Macrocyte

An abnormally large red blood cell, especially one associated with pernicious anemia.

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Macrocyte

An abnormally large red blood cell, especially one associated with pernicious anemia.

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Polycythemia

an abnormal excess of erythrocytes that increases blood viscosity, causing it to sludge, or flow sluggishly

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Amoeboid motion

the process in which leukocytes move through the tissue spaces, they form flowing cytoplasmic extensions that move them along.

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Chemotaxis

the process leukocytes use to follow the chemical trail of molecules released by damaged cells or other leukocytes

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Leukocytosis

A white blood cell count of over 11,000 cells/μl

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Respiratory burst

oxygen is actively metabolized to produce potent germ-killer oxidizing substances such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide, and defensin-mediated lysis occurs.oxygen is actively metabolized to produce potent germ-killer oxidizing substances such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide, and defensin-mediated lysis occurs.

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T lymphocytes

(T cells) function in the immune response by acting directly against virus-infected cells and tumor cells.

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T lymphocytes

(T cells) function in the immune response by acting directly against virus-infected cells and tumor cells.

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Macrophages

actively phagocytic, and they are crucial in the body’s defense against viruses, certain intracellular bacterial parasites, and chronic infections such as tuberculosis.

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Leucopoiesis

the production of white blood cells, is stimulated by chemical messengers.

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lymphoid stem

cells which produce lymphocytes,

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vascular spasm

In the first step of blood vessel repair, the damaged blood vessels respond to injury by constricting (vasoconstriction), triggers include direct injury to vascular smooth muscle, chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets, and reflexes initiated by local pain receptors.

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Platelet Plug Formation

the second step of blood vessel repair, platelets play a key role in hemostasis by aggregating (sticking together), forming a plug that temporarily seals the break in the vessel wall

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Coagulation

The third step in blood vessel repair, blood clotting, reinforces the platelet plug with fibrin threads that act as a “molecular glue” for the aggregated platelets

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Clotting factors, or procoagulants

substances that transform Blood from a liquid to a gel

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Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)

a potent aggregating agent that causes more platelets to stick to the area and release their contents

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intrinsic pathway

•Triggered by negatively charged surfaces such as activated platelets, collagen, or glass. (This is why this pathway can initiate clotting in a test tube.)

•Called intrinsic because the factors needed for clotting are present within (intrinsic to) the blood.

•Slower because it has many intermediate steps.

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extrinsic pathway

•Triggered by exposing blood to a factor found in tissues underneath the damaged endothelium. This factor is called tissue factor (TF) or factor III.

•Called extrinsic because the tissue factor it requires is outside of blood.

•Faster because it bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway. In severe tissue trauma, it can promote clot formation in 15 seconds.

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clot retraction

Platelets contain contractile proteins (actin and myosin), and they contract in much the same manner as muscle cells. As the platelets contract, they pull on the surrounding fibrin strands

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serum

plasma minus the clotting proteins

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Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

released by platelet degranulation stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to divide and rebuild the wall.

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factor XIII (fibrin stabilizing factor)

a cross-linking enzyme that binds the fibrin strands tightly together, forming a fibrin mesh.

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fibrinolysis

removes unneeded clots when healing has occurred.

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Fibrinogen

soluble clotting factor

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Fibrin

fibrous, non-globular protein involved in the clotting of blood. It is formed from fibrinogen by the protease thrombin, and is then polymerised to form a "mesh" that forms a hemostatic plug or clot (in conjunction with platelets) over a wound site.

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Plasmin

critical natural “clot buster” is a fibrin-digesting enzyme

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plasminogen

plasma protein, large amounts of plasminogen are incorporated into a forming clot, where it remains inactive until appropriate signals reach it.

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tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

...

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Antithrombin III

protein present in plasma, inhibit the activity of other intrinsic pathway procoagulants.

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Protein C

protein produced in the liver, inhibit the activity of other intrinsic pathway procoagulants.

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Heparin

the natural anticoagulant contained in basophil and mast cell granules, is also found on the surface of endothelial cells.

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Thromboembolic disorders

result from conditions that cause undesirable clot formation.

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Thrombus

clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel

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Embolus

thrombus breaks away from the vessel wall and floats freely in the bloodstream

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Embolism

embolus encounters a blood vessel too narrow for it to pass through.

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Bleeding disorders

arise from abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation.

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Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

involves both widespread clotting and severe bleeding.

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Warfarin (Coumadin)

anticoagulant drug to reduce the risk of stroke in those prone to atrial fibrillation.

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Thrombocytopenia

A condition in which the number of circulating platelets is deficient, causes spontaneous bleeding from small blood vessels all over the body. Even normal movement leads to widespread hemorrhage, evidenced by many small purplish spots, called petechiae, on the skin.

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Hemophilia A

or classical hemophilia, results from a deficiency of factor VIII (antihemophilic factor). It accounts for 77% of cases.

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Hemophilia B

results from a deficiency of factor IX. Both types are X-linked conditions and so occur primarily in males.

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Hemophilia C

a less severe form of hemophilia seen in both sexes, is due to a lack of factor XI.

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Whole blood transfusions

are routine when blood loss is rapid and substantial.

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Packed red cells

whole blood from which most of the plasma has been removed

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Agglutinogens

An antigen that stimulates the production of an agglutinin.

78

Universal Donor

O

79

Universal Receiver

AB