Chapter 3 - Microscopy and Staining

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Microbiology
Chapter 3
updated 7 years ago by coleybugs
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1

What are the two major types of objects in the world?

amplitude and phase objects

2

the distance from the crest on one wave to the next peak is called the what?

wavelength

3

Is the hight or amplitude of the wave affected when light interacts with a phase object like clean glass?

no

4

Is it true that the wave that travels through the glass is slowed down relative to the next of it that moves through the air?

yes that is true

5

In order for the human eye and brain to understand a phase object, the phase object must retard the light by how much?

more than a quarter of a wavelength

6

the bonding of light as it passes from one medium to another of different density

refraction

7

what are the two types of electron microscopes?

TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope)
SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)

8

type of electron microscope that displays a flattened image and shows great detail

TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope)

9

type of electon microscope that displays a 3-D image

SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope)

10

What are the two major types of slides?

wet mount and permanent

11

type of slide that is temporary and is usually made using water

wet mount

12

a type of wet mount that is made when a drop is suspended from a coverslip

hanging drop

13

a type of wet mount that is a thin film of cells; ALWAYS let it air dry then do the heat fixation

smear

14

What three things does heat fixation accomplish?

1. kills the organisms
2. causes the organisms to adhere to the slide
3. alters the organisms so that they more readily accept stains (dye)

15

type of slide that lasts for years; usually has label

permanent

16

stain that has a positive charge

basic stain

17

stain that is made using a single dye and reveals basic cell shapes and cell arrangement

simple stain

18

stain that makes use of two or more dyes and distinguishes between two kinds of organisms or between two different parts of an organism

differential stain

19

stain that shows cell wall structure

gram staining (can either be gram positive or gram negative)

20

A nanometer is how much of a meter

one billionth

21

The angstrom is how much of a meter

1 * 10^-10

22

The smallest seperation of objects that could be resolved by a light microscope would be what?

220 nm

23

What is refraction?

the bending of light as it travels from one medium to another

24

a microscope with two ocular lenses is what?

binocular

25

What will produce a 3-D image of a bacterium?

Scanning Electron Microscopy

26

What allows for visualization of atoms?

Scanning tunneling Microscopy

27

Which of the following is the best for visualizing interior cellular structures?

Transmission Electron Microscopy

28

A hanging drop preparation is commonly used with what type of microscope?

Scanning Electron Microscope

29

Which of the following is true about smear preparation?
a. it kills the microorganisms
b. it causes the microorganisms to adhere to the slide
c.it allows microorganisms to readily

A B & C

30

Which staining technique would differentiate between cells with thick walls and cells with thin walls and an outer membrane?

Gram Stain

31

What is a mordant used for?

to help the primary stain bind to its target

32

The Gram stain bind differentially to what part of bacteria?

their cell walls

33

A Schaeffer-Fulton endospore stain would be considered what kind of stain?

a differential stain

34

what is known as the ability to see two closely-spaced items as a seperate and distinct unit?

resolution

35

What is the distance between two troughs of a wave?

wavelength

36

Resolution and energy level will increaseas the wavelength does what?

decreases

37

When ultraviolent energy is absorbed by an object at one wavelength, and re-emitted at another visible wavelength, what is that called?

fluorescence

38

As light passes through a small opening, the light waves are bent around that opening in a phenomenon known as what?

diffraction

39

The total magnification of an image collected with a compound light microscope is determined by multiplying the magnification of the what by the magnification power of the what?

ocular: objective