Ch 21 genomes and evolution

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created 9 days ago by rizzzy4
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1

genonomics

bioinformatics

study of whole sets of genes

computational applications

2

human genome project

faster less expensive techniques

3

genome shotgun approach

cloning and sequencing dna fragements into cotinual sequence

4

gene annotation

idnetification of protein coding genes

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proteome

entire set of proteins

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systems bio

entire catalogues of genes and proteins focusing on functional integration

7

genome size

inversely correlated to densities; humans have greatest size but lowest density. number not correlated

8

why do humans have low number

alternative splicing

9

what percent of non coding

98.5 percent

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psuedogenes

former genes now with mutations that are nonfucntional

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repetitive DNA

multiple copies

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repetitive what percentage; exons percentage?

44; 1.5

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transposable elements

can hop to new locations; 75 percent of human repetitive DNA

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transposons

move with DNA intermediate and transposable enzyme. copy and inserted

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retroposons

RNA copied to dna and that inserted

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l1 sequences low rate of transposition

...

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simple sequence dna

many copies of short sequence; centromeres and telomeres

STRUCTURAL ROLES

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SITES for nonsister cromitids to cross over

transposable elements

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variation in humans can be one single nucleotide

...

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evo-devo

compares developmental processes of different multicellular organisms

21

homeobox

same sequence for head thorax abdomen

HIGHLY CONSERVED!

called hox gene in animals