Chapter 18 Biology

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1

prokaryotes and eukaryotes regulate gene expression how?

based on enviromental conditions

2

operon model includes what

operator, promoter, all genes controlled

3

repressror gene

prevents transcription by binding to promoter and blocking RNA polymerase

4

Two types of Negative Gene Regulation

repressible- anabolic, in response to large number of products, always on till turned off

inducible- catabolic, inducer(inactivates repressor), always off and then turns on, response to chemical signal

5

Why eukaryote gene expression more complicated?

cell specialization

6

differential gene expression

same genome, but different genes being expressed in the same genome

7

chromitin structure

loosley packed, more likely to transcribe.

8

methylation; acetylation

methyl- inhibits

acetyl- loosens, more likely to transcribe

9

modifications to histone and dna influence

chromitin structure, and gene expression

10

genomic expression

recessive still shows through bc one is suppressed, can be passed down. DNA not touched

11

epigenetic inhertance

inheritence of traits not due to dna sequence

12

enhancers

far, associated with one gene usually

13

activator

two sides one to bind to dna another to activate transcription

14

alternative RNA spliciing

slightly different mRNA produced; 90 percent of human protein coding genes; significantly expand repertoire

15

life span of mRNA

eukary>prokary; UTR in 3' end; in the cytoplasm

16

ubiqultin- protosomes

degradation marker and degradationer

17

types of noncoding RNA

miRNA - degrade of block depend on bases

piRNA - blocking parasitic; induces heterochromatin

siRNA-disable genes in lab; reform heterochromin

18

long non coding

x gene expression

19

differentiation

one cell becoming certain tissue, serving specific function

20

morphogensis

shape constituting

21

cytomplasmic detreminants

maternal determined; unequal distrubution in futher cells

22

induction

signal molecules from embryonic cells

23

determination

irreversibily commits cell to being a type

24

homeotic genes

control pattern formatio

25

maternal effect genes

encode cytoplasmic determinants

26

morphogens

determine axes

27

tumor suppresor genes

repair DNA, anchor DNA, cell signaling

28

ras gene

activates, signals cell divison without growth factor

29

p53

mutation and doesnt inhibit cell division

30

older

more likely to have cancer