Pathophysiology Ch 2

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Pathophysiology
Chapter 2
Pathophysiology
updated 3 weeks ago by Mariana_Gomez
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1

Remaining stable while staying the same
A state in which all systems are in balance
A state of equilibrium
An ideal “set point” despite alterations
within the body

Homeostasis

2

Ability to successfully adapt to challenges
Intricate regulatory processes orchestrated
by the brain
A dynamic process that maintains or reestablishes homeostasis in light of
environmental and lifestyle changes

Allostasis

3

Physical, chemical, or emotional factor
resulting in tension of body or mind
Actual physical and mental state that
tension produces
Real or perceived threat to homeostasis
Direct consciously or indirect
unconsciously sensed threat to the stability
of the organism

Stress

4

3 stages

General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
(Selye)

Alarm
Resistance/Adaptation
Exhaustion

5

fight-or-flight response due to
stressful stimulus
Ø Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

Alarm stage:

6

activity of the
nervous and endocrine systems in
returning the body to homeostasis
Ø Allostatic state: activity of various systems
attempting to restore homeostasis

Resistance or Adaptation:

7

point where body can no
longer return to homeostasis
Ø Allostatic overload: “cost” of body’s organs and
tissues for an excessive or ineffectively
regulated allostatic response; effect of “wear
and tear” on the body

Exhaustion:

8

Agents or conditions that can produce
stress; endanger homeostasis
Ø May be external or internal
Ø Physical, chemical, biological, social, cultural
or psychological
Ø Vary in scope, intensity, and duration

Stressors

9

Not stressors, but conditions or situations
that increase the likelihood of encountering
a stressor

Risk Factors

10

Play an integral role in allostasis
Sympathico-adrenal system response
mediates the fight-or-flight response
Examples
Ø Norepinephrine and epinephrine

Catecholamines

11

Constricts blood vessels and raises blood
pressure
Reduces gastric secretions
Increases night and far vision

Norepinephrine

12

Enhances myocardial contractility,
increases heart rate, and increases
cardiac output
Causes bronchodilation
Increases the release of glucose from the
liver (glycogenolysis) and elevates blood
glucose levels

Epinephrine

13

Critical to maintenance of homeostasis
May synergize or antagonize effects of
catecholamines
Examples
Ø Cortisol and aldosterone

Adrenocortical Steroids

14

Primary glucocorticoid
Affects protein metabolism
Promotes appetite and food-seeking
behaviors
Has anti-inflammatory effects

Cortisol

15

Primary mineralocorticoid
Promotes reabsorption of sodium and
water
Increases blood pressure

Aldosterone

16

Endogenous opioids (body’s natural pain
relievers)
Ø Raise pain threshold
Ø Produce sedation and euphoria

Endorphins and Enkephalins

17

Secreted by macrophages during stress
response
Ø Enhance immune system response
Ø Prolonged stress can suppress immune
functioning
Example
Ø Interleukin-1

Immune Cytokines

18

Affect stress responses, thus influencing
allostasis
May help explain gender responses during
stress
Examples
Ø Estrogen, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone

Sex Hormones

19

Hormone

Can increase during stress to enhance
immune function

Growth hormone

20

Horomone

Ø Similar to structure of growth hormone
Ø Role in immune response

Prolactin

21

Ø Produced during childbirth and lactation
Ø Associated with bonding and social attachment
Ø Thought to moderate stress response and
produce a calming effect

Oxytocin

22

Effects of stress response influenced by:

Ø Genetics
Ø Socioeconomic status
Ø Prior susceptibilities
Ø Preexisting health status
Ø Allostatic state
Ø Ability to manage stress

23

biopsychosocial process of
change in response to new or altered
circumstances, internal or external in origin

Adaptation

24

behavioral adaptive response to a
stressor using culturally based coping
mechanisms

Coping

25

perceived inability to cope with a
stressor

Distress

26

Ø Habituation
Ø Desensitization
• Biofeedback
• Visualization
• Meditation

Adaptation methods for stress

27

inadequate adaptation
mechanisms or excessive allostatic load;
results in inability to maintain homeostasis
Ø Leads to various illnesses and disorders, both
physical and emotional
Ø Chemical mediators from the stress response
contribute to various illnesses: cortisol,
catecholamines, cytokines

Allostatic overload

28

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Neuropsychological manifestations

Nervous tic

Fatigue

Loss of Motivation

Anxiety

Overeating

Depression

Insomnia

Nervous System

29

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Disturbances of Heart Rate; Rythym

Hypertension

Stroke

Coronary Artery Disease

Cardiovascular system

30

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Gastritis

Irritable bowel Syndrome

Diarrhea

Nausea; Vomiting

Ulcerative colitis

Gastro Intestinal System

31

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Diuresis

Irritable bladder

Sexual Dysfunction

Menstrual irregularity

Genitourinary System

32

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Eczema

Psoriasis

Neurodermatitis

Acne

Hair Loss

Integumentary System

33

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Increased respiration

Asthma

Hay Fever

Respiratory System

34

Effects of Allostatic Overload

immunodificiency

immunosuppression

autoimmune disease

Immune System

35

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Hyperglycemia

Diabetes melitus

Endocrine System

36

Effects of Allostatic Overload

Tension Headache

Muscle contraction beackache

Rheumatoid arthritis

Inflammatory disease of connective tissue

Musculoskeletal System

37

Which term refers to a state of tension that can lead to disruption or threaten physical stability?

Stress

It is defined as a state that can lead to disruption or threaten homeostasis.

38

When a body function changes to work within its environment.

Adaptive Changes

39

When there is a negative sequela

Exhaustion

40

a dynamic process that supports and helps the body achieve homeostasis.

Allostasis

41

What stage is called "fight or flight"?

Alarm is because it gives the body a boost of energy to either run or confront.

42

Catecholamines

Epinepherine is secreted from adrenal medulla

Norepinephrine is secreted from the sympathethic nerves

Both cause increased heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow to skeletal muscles.

43

Epinephrine

Increases heart rate, venous return, and cardiac output. Produces some of the same effects as norepinephrine, but has a greater influence on cardiac action. increases glycogenolysis and the release of glucose from the liver. Increases muscle strength, mental alertness, and vigilance.

44

Cortisol

Produces stress response effect similar to those of epinephrine with differences in length duration. Cortisol last longer.

45

On which area does cortisol have an anabolic effect?

Protein, leading to an increased rate of protein synthesis.

46

Which hormone is responsible for lactation and interferes with ovulation?

Prolactin

47

which cardiovascular disorder has not been linked to excessive catecholamine levels in the blood?

Heart Valve disfunction