Chapter 17

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1

Renaissance

a period of European History,
The Renaissance involves the European History.

2

humanism

A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Humanism was studied to understand Greek values.

3

secular

concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters.
Under Gregory became a secular.

4

patron

A person who supports artists, especially financially.
Many church leaders became Patrons during the Renaissance.

5

perspective

an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.
A lot of artists like to use perspective art.

6

vernacular

the everyday language of people in a region or country.
The vernacular language of this country is english.

7

utopia

an imaginary land described by Thomas More in his book Utopia

8

William Shakespeare

The most famous writer of the Elizabeth Age all time. William Shakespeare was regarded as the greatest play-writer of all time

9

Johann Gutenberg

A craftsman from Mainz, Germany, who developed a printing press that incorporated a number of technologies in a new way.

10

indulgence

a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin.

11

Reformation

a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that reject the pope's authority.

12

Lutheran

a member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.

13

Protestant

a member of a Christian church founded on the principals of the reformation

14

Peace of Augsburg

a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler.

15

annul

to cancel or set aside. The pope could annual Henry's marriage.

16

Anglican

Relating to the church of England.

17

predestination

the doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand , including which people will be eternally saved.

18

Calvinism

a body of religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin. John's ideas were taught in Calvinism.

19

theocracy

a government in which the ruler is viewed as a divine figure. A government controlled by religious leaders is theocracy too.

20

Presbyterian

a member of a Protestant church governed by presbyters(Elders). Presbyterian was founded on the teachings of John Knox.

21

Anabaptist

a member of Protestant group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and believed in separation of church and state. Anabaptist was in the Reformation.

22

Catholic Reformation

a movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Reformation was during the 16th century.

23

Jesuits

members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola.

24

Council of Trent

a meeting of Roman Catholic leaders, called by Pope Paul 3 to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers.