Disease of Genitourinary

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1

Protection:

  • Flushing action (desquamation)
  • Urine contains antibacterial proteins (IgA), lysozyme and lactoferin
  • Female vagina
  • Mucous membrane (secretory IgA)
  • Acidic pH (fermentation)
2

Normal flora of Both male and female on the Outer regions of the urethra are?

Non hemolytic streptococci, staphylococci, corynebacteria, some lactobacilli

3

Normal flora of of female vagina?

bacterial and some fungi

4

What are the diseases of the Urinary tract?

  • Bacterial infection
  • Cystitis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Urethritis
  • Leptospirosis
  • Urinary schistosomiasis
5

This disease causes frequent urination, dysuria (painful urination), fever, flank pain, and blood in urine. It happens when contaminants enter the urethra and travel upward.

Urinary Tract Infection

6

Urinary Tract Infection is the most common ________________.

nosocomial infection

7

Leptospira interrogans, the causative agent of ______________, is a spirochete bacteria that VF is adhesions.

leptospirosis

8

This disease causes a kidney infection. The bacteria has a hook and is present in animal urine. It is transmitted by contaminated soil or water.

leptospirosis

9

This disease is caused by a Helminth infection. It lodges in the blood vessels of the bladder and causes obstruction of the bladder.

Urinary schistosomiasis

10

Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by ________________. It's VF is antigenic cloaking

Schistosoma Haematobium

11

This disease causesSudden-onset fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, confusion, and severe red rash and Individuals go into shock if untreated. Most cases occur in menstruating females

Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

12

This disease happens when an overgrowth of normal bacterial flora, decrease in lactobacilli in vagina. Symptoms are Fishy/musty odor often after intercourse, pain, itching, burning, profuse white or gray discharge.

Vaginitis and vaginosis

  • Can increase risk of PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) after surgery, and increases risk of acquiring other STD’s
13

____________ can be one of the causes of Vaginitis.

Candida albicans

14

For mixed vaginitis infections, _____________ is the major bacteria involved, and can be identified by the formation of clue cells.

Gardnerella

15

In this disease, Females have vaginal discharge and vaginal irritation and Males are typically asymptomatic. It is a protozoan infection. Transmission primarily via sexual intercourse. It is Most common curable STD in women.

Trichomoniasis

16

_________________ is a protozoan infection, and is considered a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

Trichomonas vaginalis

17

What are the VF for Trichomonas vaginalis?

Flagella and undulating membrane

18

What are the discharge diseases?

  • Gonorrhea
  • Chlamydia
19

Gonorrhea is caused by __________________.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

20

This STD is strictly a human disease. In males it causes urethritis. Females it can cause Salpingitis &Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In males, 3-6 days later, burning during urination, frequent urination, yellowish green pus discharge, Swollen testes.

Gonorrhea

21

_______________ are diplococcus inside neutrophils.

N. gonorrhoeae

22

N. gonorrhoeae can cause eye infections in ___________.

new borns.

23

Phase variation (fimbrial proteins) and IgA protease (breaks down IgA) is a VF for?

Gonorrhea

24

____________ is the most common reportable STD in the U.S.

Chlamydia

25

This STD has million infected a year. It Infects conjunctival cells or cells lining mucous membranes. Can be asymptomatic. Symptoms: 1-3 weeks after exposure Women: abnormal discharge, burning during urination, lower abdominal pain, back pain, nausea, fever. Men: discharge from penis, burning during urination

Chlamydia

26

Chlamydia is caused by ________________.

(Chlamydia trachomatis)

27

Chlamydia is an ________________, and the life cycle involves an infectious elementary body stage and a reticular body or multiplying stage.

intracellular pathogen

28

Elementary body of Chalamydia is the _______________.

–infective form

29

Reticulate body of Chalamydia is the _______________.

reproductive form

30

_______________________ is a complications of Chlamydia. 1-4 weeks after exposure, sore appears -swelling of inguinal lymph nodes. Leads to draining ulcers and secondary infection

Lymphogranuloma Venereum

31

Genital ulcer diseases include:

  • Lesions on the genitals
  • Syphilis
  • Chancroid
  • Genital herpes
32

Syphilis is caused by

Treponema pallidum

33

The primary stage of Syphilis happens 1 to 4 weeks after exposure, a ____________ – painless sore, can be small firm and round or large, and open. At this stage it is very infectious, but after 3-6 weeks it goes away

chancre

34

Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is a _____________________.

spirochete bacterium.

35

The secondary stage of Syphilis, 6-8 weeks after chancre a _________ develops. Can occur anywhere on the body but often it is a rough red to reddish brown on the palms and soles.

  • muscle aches, fever swollen glands, patchy hair loss, weight loss can accompany the rash, or not. Still infectious, but again goes away

rash

36

The Latency of Syphilis, happens After 5-40 years. Internal damage can lead to heart damage, neurological damage; loss of coordination, paralysis, dementia. ___________ develop usually internally, and if on organs can cause damage

Gummas (destruction of tissue)

37

Syphilis can be treated in stage _________.

1 & 2

38

T. pallidum can be identified by dark-field microscopy, in which the characteristic __________ can be observed.

spiral morphology

39

Congenital syphilis begins as an early profuse nasal discharge and later develops into a condition called _________________.

Hutchinson’s teeth

40

This STD disease is most prevalent in tropic and subtropic environments. Causes Soft chancres, pain upon urination in women. It Produces a toxin that kills epithelial cells.

Chancroid

41

Chancroid Caused by

Haemophilus ducreyi

42

Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid) is ________________ which shows variable shape and size in a response to changing environmental conditions.

Pleomorphic

43

__________ causes Genital herpes.

HSV 2

44

HSV 2 has a _____________ capsid & ___________.

icosahedral & envople

45

This disease is a Virus infection. It is Chronic – viral latency. Asymptomatic with Recurrent symptoms of outbreak of sores. Serious in newborns

Genital herpes

46

______________ causes whole body/brain infection. Death, blindness, retardation. *rare* It is a prenatal transfer (during birth)

Neonatal herpes

47

__________ is believed to be responsible for oral herpes or cold sores.

HSV-1

48

Reactivation of HSV-2 causes the virus to travel down the _______________ , forming visible lesions.

neuron to the body’s surface

49

Warts is caused by?

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
  • Molluscum contagiosum
50

This disease is a Viral infection of the skin that can cause painless cauliflower type tumors. No cure.

100 different strains, 30 are STD’s, 10 most likely to cause cancer.

- most will not have symptoms, and self resolve.

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
51

HPV vaccine ___________ protects against 4 HPV types that cause 70% of cervical cancer.

Gardasil

52

_______________ causes warts.

    • Virus infection
    • Less severe than HPV

Molluscum contagiosum