Disease of Genitourinary
- Flushing action (desquamation)
- Urine contains antibacterial proteins (IgA), lysozyme and lactoferin
- Female vagina
- Mucous membrane (secretory IgA)
- Acidic pH (fermentation)
Normal flora of Both male and female on the Outer regions of the urethra are?
Non hemolytic streptococci, staphylococci, corynebacteria, some lactobacilli
Normal flora of of female vagina?
bacterial and some fungi
What are the diseases of the Urinary tract?
- Bacterial infection
- Urinary schistosomiasis
This disease causes frequent urination, dysuria (painful urination), fever, flank pain, and blood in urine. It happens when contaminants enter the urethra and travel upward.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection is the most common ________________.
Leptospira interrogans, the causative agent of ______________, is a spirochete bacteria that VF is adhesions.
This disease causes a kidney infection. The bacteria has a hook and is present in animal urine. It is transmitted by contaminated soil or water.
This disease is caused by a Helminth infection. It lodges in the blood vessels of the bladder and causes obstruction of the bladder.
Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by ________________. It's VF is antigenic cloaking
This disease causesSudden-onset fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, low blood pressure, confusion, and severe red rash and Individuals go into shock if untreated. Most cases occur in menstruating females
Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome
This disease happens when an overgrowth of normal bacterial flora, decrease in lactobacilli in vagina. Symptoms are Fishy/musty odor often after intercourse, pain, itching, burning, profuse white or gray discharge.
Vaginitis and vaginosis
- Can increase risk of PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) after surgery, and increases risk of acquiring other STD’s
____________ can be one of the causes of Vaginitis.
For mixed vaginitis infections, _____________ is the major bacteria involved, and can be identified by the formation of clue cells.
In this disease, Females have vaginal discharge and vaginal irritation and Males are typically asymptomatic. It is a protozoan infection. Transmission primarily via sexual intercourse. It is Most common curable STD in women.
_________________ is a protozoan infection, and is considered a sexually transmitted disease (STD).
What are the VF for Trichomonas vaginalis?
Flagella and undulating membrane
What are the discharge diseases?
Gonorrhea is caused by __________________.
This STD is strictly a human disease. In males it causes urethritis. Females it can cause Salpingitis &Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In males, 3-6 days later, burning during urination, frequent urination, yellowish green pus discharge, Swollen testes.
_______________ are diplococcus inside neutrophils.
N. gonorrhoeae can cause eye infections in ___________.
Phase variation (fimbrial proteins) and IgA protease (breaks down IgA) is a VF for?
____________ is the most common reportable STD in the U.S.
This STD has million infected a year. It Infects conjunctival cells or cells lining mucous membranes. Can be asymptomatic. Symptoms: 1-3 weeks after exposure Women: abnormal discharge, burning during urination, lower abdominal pain, back pain, nausea, fever. Men: discharge from penis, burning during urination
Chlamydia is caused by ________________.
Chlamydia is an ________________, and the life cycle involves an infectious elementary body stage and a reticular body or multiplying stage.
Elementary body of Chalamydia is the _______________.
Reticulate body of Chalamydia is the _______________.
_______________________ is a complications of Chlamydia. 1-4 weeks after exposure, sore appears -swelling of inguinal lymph nodes. Leads to draining ulcers and secondary infection
Genital ulcer diseases include:
- Lesions on the genitals
- Genital herpes
Syphilis is caused by
The primary stage of Syphilis happens 1 to 4 weeks after exposure, a ____________ – painless sore, can be small firm and round or large, and open. At this stage it is very infectious, but after 3-6 weeks it goes away
Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, is a _____________________.
The secondary stage of Syphilis, 6-8 weeks after chancre a _________ develops. Can occur anywhere on the body but often it is a rough red to reddish brown on the palms and soles.
- muscle aches, fever swollen glands, patchy hair loss, weight loss can accompany the rash, or not. Still infectious, but again goes away
The Latency of Syphilis, happens After 5-40 years. Internal damage can lead to heart damage, neurological damage; loss of coordination, paralysis, dementia. ___________ develop usually internally, and if on organs can cause damage
Gummas (destruction of tissue)
Syphilis can be treated in stage _________.
1 & 2
T. pallidum can be identified by dark-field microscopy, in which the characteristic __________ can be observed.
Congenital syphilis begins as an early profuse nasal discharge and later develops into a condition called _________________.
This STD disease is most prevalent in tropic and subtropic environments. Causes Soft chancres, pain upon urination in women. It Produces a toxin that kills epithelial cells.
Chancroid Caused by
Haemophilus ducreyi (Chancroid) is ________________ which shows variable shape and size in a response to changing environmental conditions.
__________ causes Genital herpes.
HSV 2 has a _____________ capsid & ___________.
icosahedral & envople
This disease is a Virus infection. It is Chronic – viral latency. Asymptomatic with Recurrent symptoms of outbreak of sores. Serious in newborns
______________ causes whole body/brain infection. Death, blindness, retardation. *rare* It is a prenatal transfer (during birth)
__________ is believed to be responsible for oral herpes or cold sores.
Reactivation of HSV-2 causes the virus to travel down the _______________ , forming visible lesions.
neuron to the body’s surface
Warts is caused by?
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)
- Molluscum contagiosum
This disease is a Viral infection of the skin that can cause painless cauliflower type tumors. No cure.
100 different strains, 30 are STD’s, 10 most likely to cause cancer.
- most will not have symptoms, and self resolve.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV)
HPV vaccine ___________ protects against 4 HPV types that cause 70% of cervical cancer.
_______________ causes warts.
- Virus infection
- Less severe than HPV