A & P 1 Final

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bio 210
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1

anatomy

the branch of science concerned with the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other living organisms, especially as revealed by dissection and the separation of parts.

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physiology

the branch of biology that deals with the normal functions of living organisms and their parts.

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histology

the study of the microscopic structure of tissues.

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chemistry

a branch of science that involves the study of the composition, structure and properties of matter.

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biochemistry

the branch of science concerned with the chemical and physicochemical processes and substances that occur within living organisms.

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homeostasis

the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.

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positive feedback

the enhancement or amplification of an effect by its own influence on the process that gives rise to it.

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negative feedback

the diminution or counteraction of an effect by its own influence on the process giving rise to it, as when a high level of a particular hormone in the blood may inhibit further secretion of that hormone, or where the result of a certain action may inhibit further performance of that action.

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metabolism

the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.

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anabolism

the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism.

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catabolism

the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones, together with the release of energy; destructive metabolism.

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pH

pH is a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is.

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Buffer

a solution that resists changes in pH when acid or alkali is added to it. Buffers typically involve a weak acid or alkali together with one of its salts.

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acid

a chemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions and/or accepts electrons. Most acids contain a hydrogen atom bonded that can release (dissociate) to yield a cation and an anion in water.

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base

a chemical species that donates electrons, accepts protons, or releases hydroxide (OH-) ions in aqueous solution

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cation

a positively charged ion

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ionic bond

A chemical bond formed between two ions with opposite charges. Ionic bonds form when one atom gives up one or more electrons to another atom.

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covalent bond

the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms

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hydrogen bond

a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other.

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anion

a negatively charged ion

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Atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.

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proton

a stable subatomic particle occurring in all atomic nuclei, with a positive electric charge equal in magnitude to that of an electron, but of opposite sign.

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electron

a stable subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity, found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.

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neutron

a subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge, present in all atomic nuclei except those of ordinary hydrogen.

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organic

relating to or derived from living matter. natural matter or compounds with a carbon base

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Atomic weight

the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.

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monosaccharide

any of the class of sugars (e.g., glucose) that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.

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polysaccharide

a carbohydrate (e.g. starch, cellulose, or glycogen) whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together.

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fatty acid

a carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurring as esters in fats and oils.

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inorganic

something unrelated to organic matter or organic life, not animal or vegetable, or a chemical compound that does not contain carbon

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salt

substance produced by the reaction of an acid with a base. A salt consists of the positive ion (cation) of an acid and the negative ion (anion) of a base. ... The term salt is also used to refer specifically to common table salt, or sodium chloride

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disaccharide

any of a class of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residues.

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glycerol

a naturally occuring carbohydrate, can be used as a fuel source by the body. The main function of glycerol in the body is as a framework onto which fatty acids are stuck, for storage. Thus the name, triglyceride.

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nucleic acid

large molecules where genetic information is stored

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enzyme

speed up chemical reactions in the body, but do not get used up in the process, therefore can be used over and over again

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Name the four most abundant elements in the human body:

Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen

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Transcription

process by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA (mRNA).

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Mitosis

a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.

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Chromatid

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each of the two threadlike strands into which a chromosome divides longitudinally during cell division. Each contains a double helix of DNA.

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translation

process that takes the information passed from DNA as messenger RNA and turns it into a series of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds

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cytosol

the aqueous component of the cytoplasm of a cell, within which various organelles and particles are suspended

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chromosome

a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes

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diffusion

the net passive movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration

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osmosis

a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane

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cytoplasm

gel-like material plus the organelles outside the nucleus, and inside the cell membrane

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Genetic code

the set of instructions, in the form of nucleotide triplets, that translate a linear sequence of nucleotides in mRNA into a linear sequence of amino acids in a protein

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(DNA) replication

process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division

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Interphase

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prophase

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metaphase

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anaphase

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telophase