Chapter 2-Fundamentals of Chemistry

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 7 years ago by coleybugs
519 views
book cover
Microbiology
Chapter 2
updated 7 years ago by coleybugs
Grade levels:
12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

the smallest chemical unit of matter

atom

2

matter composed of one kind of atom

element

3

formed when two or more atoms combine chemically

molecule

4

molecules made up of two or more elements

compounds

5

What are the major elements that make up living things?

sulfur, phosphorus, oxyen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen

6

What are the three major components of atoms

proton, neutron, electron

7

major component of an atom that has a positive charge

proton

8

major component of an atom that has a neutral charge

neutron

9

major component of an atom that has a negative charge

electron

10

What major component(s) of an atom makes up the nucleus?

protons and neutrons

11

What major component(s) of an atom orbits the nucleus?

electron

12

Give the specific name for the number of protons in an atom.

atomic number

13

Give the specific name for the number of protons and the number of electrons in an atom.

atomic mass or atomic weight

14

In a stable neutral atom what two things are equal?

the number of positive charges (protons) and the number of negative charges (electrons)

15

How many electrons can the first shell of an atom hold?

2

16

How many electrons can the second and third shell of an atom hold?

8

17

a charged particle

ion
example: Cl-, Na+, H+

18

atoms of the same element with varying numbers of neutrons

isotope

19

unstable radioactive isotopes

radioisotope

20

unions of electron structures

chemical bonds

21

List the three major types of chemical bonds.

1. Ionic
2. Covalent
3. Hydrogen

22

type of bond where electrons are gained or lost; usually forms between a metal and a nonmetal

ionic bond

23

type of bond where electrons are shared; usually forms between two nonmetals

covalent bond

24

type of covalent bond where the sharing of electrons is equal

non-polar covalent bond

25

type of bond where the sharing of electrons is unequal

polar covalent bond

26

type of bond that is between a H on one molecule and another atom on a second molecule; examples include nucleic acids and water; are usually weak bonds (easily broken)

hydrogen bond

27

List five properties of water, which is essential for the normal functioning of all forms of life

1. acts as a solvent or dissolving material
2. forms thin layers b/c of a high suface tension
3. can absorb or release large quantities of heat with little temperature change
4. provides the environment for most chemical reactions in a cell
5. participates in cellular reactions in which molecules are broken down (hydrolysis)

28

composed of two or more substrates that are not chemically bound and may combine in any proportion

mixtures
examples include mixtures of salt and pepper

29

mixtures in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed and generally do not settle out on standing

solution

30

What are the two basic parts of a solution?

solvent and solute
example: sugar (solvent) in coffee (solute)

31

Known as the universal solvent

water

32

is formed when particles are too large to form true solutions

colloids

33

the measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution

pH scale

34

What does pH actually stand for?

potential of hydrogen

35

What number is considered neutral (where the amount of H+ ions and OH- ions are equal) on the pH scale?

7

36

What has a pH of less than 7?

acid (more H+)

37

What has a pH of more than 7?

base (more OH-)

38

compounds that "absorb" excess acid or base and allow the pH of the solution to remain rather stable

buffers

39

attempts to prevent large changes in pH

buffers

40

generally large molecules containing two or more carbons in a chain or ring shape

organic molecules

41

usually produced by living organisms

organic molecules

42

organic molecule composed of simple sugars

carbohydrate

43

three main groups of carbohydrates

1. monosaccharides
2. disaccharides
3. polysaccharides

44

simple sugar; composed of one unit

monosaccharide

45

give two examples of monosaccharides

glucose and fructose

46

composed of two monosaccharides

disaccharides

47

give two examples of disaccharides

sucrose and lactose

48

composed of many sugars

polysaccharide

49

name the four most common polysaccharides found in nature

starch
glycogen
cellulose
chitin

50

plant stored glucose

starch

51

animal stored glucose

glycogen

52

the only two polysaccharides that can be used for food and that also have spiral chains of glucose

starch
glycogen

53

straight chain of glucose that makes up cell walls

cellulose

54

straight chains of glucose with nitrogen attached

chitin

55

List two or three places chitin can be found

mushrooms
outer body of insects
crustaceans

56

usually composed of fatty acides and are greasy, oily, or waxy compounds

lipids

57

What group of lipids is not composed of fatty acids?

sterol group
example: steroid compounds

58

can be saturated or unsaturated and are made up of a glycerol head and hydrocarbon tail

fatty acid

59

fatty acid that contains as many single bonds as possible, is usually from an animal source, and is usually solid at room temperature

saturated

60

give an example or two of a saturated fat

bacon grease
lard

61

fatty acid that contains at least one double bond, is usually from a plant source,and is usually liquid at room temperature

unsaturated

62

fatty acids with two or more double bonds

polyunsaturated

63

unsaturated fat that has been turned into saturated fat

transaturated

64

composed of amino acids

proteins

65

How many know amino acids are there and how can they be distinguished?

20
by there R Group

66

The structure (shape) of a protein is linked to its what?

function

67

What are the levels of the structures of proteins

1. primary
2. secondary
3. tertiary
4. quaternary

68

structure of protein that is the sequence of amino acids

primary

69

structure of protein that is the orientation in space; alpha helix (coil) or a pleated sheet structure

secondary

70

structure of a protein that the coiled chain folds back on itself

tertiary

71

structure of a protein that has more than one coiled, folded chain is folded and coiled with other chains

quaternary

72

disrupts secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures by disrupting the H bonds that maintain protein structure

denaturation

73

What can cause denaturation?

heat
change of pH (esp to acidic)
radiation
allosteric inhibition

74

Proteins that contribute to the structure of the cell

structural

75

proteins that contribute both to structure and movement in the cell

motile

76

are USUALLY proteins that act as catalysts and lower the activation energy

enzyme

77

energy required to start a reaction

activation energy

78

Are enzymes broken down by catalyzing a reaction?

no, they can be used over and over again

79

crevice or groove where the substrate is attached to the active site due to shape

active site

80

composed of nucleotides

nucleic acids

81

What are nucleic acids named for?

their sugars

82

What is a nucleotide composed of?

sugar
phosphate group
nitrogen base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil)

83

Double ringed structures of nucleic acids and a purines

adenine
guanine

84

Single ringed structures of nucleic acids and are pyrimidines

cytosine
thymine
uracil

85

create nitrogenous base pairs for DNA

Purines Pyrimidines
adenine - thymine
guanine - cytosine

86

create nitrogenous base pairs for RNA

Purine Pyrimidines
adenine - uracil
guanine - cytosil

87

A purine always pairs with what?

pyrimidine (and vice versa)

88

Give two examples of nucleic acids

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)

89

nucleic acid that is double-stranded; sugar is deoxyribose

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

90

nucleic acid that is single-stranded; sugar is ribose

RNA (ribonucleic acid)

91

How many natural elements are there?

92

92

How do electrons move across cell membranes?

in the form of ions

93

causes plaque in artery walls

lipid

94

When is a "food" actually a food?

when it can be broken down into ATP

95

means addi ng hydrogens

hydrogenated

96

What has the smallest atomic mass?
a. proton
b. neutron
c. electron

all of the above

97

What type of charge does an anion have?

negative

98

A cation is formed when what happens?

a neutral atom loses an electron

99

Whay are ionic bonds formed?

charge attraction between ions
sharing of electrons between ions
polar attractions between ions

100

reaction that releases stored energy

catabolic

101

What is the range of the pH scale

0 - 14

102

Organic chemistry is the study of compounds based on what?

carbon

103

What are the simplest organic compounds

hydrocarbons

104

All carbohydrates are composed of what?

carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

105

Which of the following is a polysaccharide:
starch
glycogen
cellulose

all of them are polysaccharides

106

Is a glycerol a lipid?

no

107

The primary structure of a protein refers to its what?

amino acid sequence

108

what is found in DNA but not in RNA?

thymine

109

Adenine will hydrogen bond with what?

uracil or thymine