Chapter 2-Fundamentals of Chemistry
the smallest chemical unit of matter
matter composed of one kind of atom
formed when two or more atoms combine chemically
molecules made up of two or more elements
What are the major elements that make up living things?
sulfur, phosphorus, oxyen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen
What are the three major components of atoms
proton, neutron, electron
major component of an atom that has a positive charge
major component of an atom that has a neutral charge
major component of an atom that has a negative charge
What major component(s) of an atom makes up the nucleus?
protons and neutrons
What major component(s) of an atom orbits the nucleus?
Give the specific name for the number of protons in an atom.
Give the specific name for the number of protons and the number of electrons in an atom.
atomic mass or atomic weight
In a stable neutral atom what two things are equal?
the number of positive charges (protons) and the number of negative charges (electrons)
How many electrons can the first shell of an atom hold?
How many electrons can the second and third shell of an atom hold?
a charged particle
example: Cl-, Na+, H+
atoms of the same element with varying numbers of neutrons
unstable radioactive isotopes
unions of electron structures
List the three major types of chemical bonds.
type of bond where electrons are gained or lost; usually forms between a metal and a nonmetal
type of bond where electrons are shared; usually forms between two nonmetals
type of covalent bond where the sharing of electrons is equal
non-polar covalent bond
type of bond where the sharing of electrons is unequal
polar covalent bond
type of bond that is between a H on one molecule and another atom on a second molecule; examples include nucleic acids and water; are usually weak bonds (easily broken)
List five properties of water, which is essential for the normal functioning of all forms of life
1. acts as a solvent or dissolving material
2. forms thin layers b/c of a high suface tension
3. can absorb or release large quantities of heat with little temperature change
4. provides the environment for most chemical reactions in a cell
5. participates in cellular reactions in which molecules are broken down (hydrolysis)
composed of two or more substrates that are not chemically bound and may combine in any proportion
examples include mixtures of salt and pepper
mixtures in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed and generally do not settle out on standing
What are the two basic parts of a solution?
solvent and solute
example: sugar (solvent) in coffee (solute)
Known as the universal solvent
is formed when particles are too large to form true solutions
the measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
What does pH actually stand for?
potential of hydrogen
What number is considered neutral (where the amount of H+ ions and OH- ions are equal) on the pH scale?
What has a pH of less than 7?
acid (more H+)
What has a pH of more than 7?
base (more OH-)
compounds that "absorb" excess acid or base and allow the pH of the solution to remain rather stable
attempts to prevent large changes in pH
generally large molecules containing two or more carbons in a chain or ring shape
usually produced by living organisms
organic molecule composed of simple sugars
three main groups of carbohydrates
simple sugar; composed of one unit
give two examples of monosaccharides
glucose and fructose
composed of two monosaccharides
give two examples of disaccharides
sucrose and lactose
composed of many sugars
name the four most common polysaccharides found in nature
plant stored glucose
animal stored glucose
the only two polysaccharides that can be used for food and that also have spiral chains of glucose
straight chain of glucose that makes up cell walls
straight chains of glucose with nitrogen attached
List two or three places chitin can be found
outer body of insects
usually composed of fatty acides and are greasy, oily, or waxy compounds
What group of lipids is not composed of fatty acids?
example: steroid compounds
can be saturated or unsaturated and are made up of a glycerol head and hydrocarbon tail
fatty acid that contains as many single bonds as possible, is usually from an animal source, and is usually solid at room temperature
give an example or two of a saturated fat
fatty acid that contains at least one double bond, is usually from a plant source,and is usually liquid at room temperature
fatty acids with two or more double bonds
unsaturated fat that has been turned into saturated fat
composed of amino acids
How many know amino acids are there and how can they be distinguished?
by there R Group
The structure (shape) of a protein is linked to its what?
What are the levels of the structures of proteins
structure of protein that is the sequence of amino acids
structure of protein that is the orientation in space; alpha helix (coil) or a pleated sheet structure
structure of a protein that the coiled chain folds back on itself
structure of a protein that has more than one coiled, folded chain is folded and coiled with other chains
disrupts secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures by disrupting the H bonds that maintain protein structure
What can cause denaturation?
change of pH (esp to acidic)
Proteins that contribute to the structure of the cell
proteins that contribute both to structure and movement in the cell
are USUALLY proteins that act as catalysts and lower the activation energy
energy required to start a reaction
Are enzymes broken down by catalyzing a reaction?
no, they can be used over and over again
crevice or groove where the substrate is attached to the active site due to shape
composed of nucleotides
What are nucleic acids named for?
What is a nucleotide composed of?
nitrogen base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracil)
Double ringed structures of nucleic acids and a purines
Single ringed structures of nucleic acids and are pyrimidines
create nitrogenous base pairs for DNA
adenine - thymine
guanine - cytosine
create nitrogenous base pairs for RNA
adenine - uracil
guanine - cytosil
A purine always pairs with what?
pyrimidine (and vice versa)
Give two examples of nucleic acids
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid that is double-stranded; sugar is deoxyribose
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid that is single-stranded; sugar is ribose
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
How many natural elements are there?
How do electrons move across cell membranes?
in the form of ions
causes plaque in artery walls
When is a "food" actually a food?
when it can be broken down into ATP
means addi ng hydrogens
What has the smallest atomic mass?
all of the above
What type of charge does an anion have?
A cation is formed when what happens?
a neutral atom loses an electron
Whay are ionic bonds formed?
charge attraction between ions
sharing of electrons between ions
polar attractions between ions
reaction that releases stored energy
What is the range of the pH scale
0 - 14
Organic chemistry is the study of compounds based on what?
What are the simplest organic compounds
All carbohydrates are composed of what?
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Which of the following is a polysaccharide:
all of them are polysaccharides
Is a glycerol a lipid?
The primary structure of a protein refers to its what?
amino acid sequence
what is found in DNA but not in RNA?
Adenine will hydrogen bond with what?
uracil or thymine