Psychology: Chapter 3 Notes

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Biological Psycology
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1

Biological Psychologists

A link between our behavior(Psychological processes) and biological structures.

2

Key areas of biological psychologist study

Nervous system-Endocrine system-Heredity

3

Heredity-

effect the way we look and act

4

Endocrine system

Secretion of hormones

5

Nervous system

Brain and tracks of all the nerves

6

Nervouse system

Regulates internal functions and how we relate the external world. When we learn new information.

7

Two areas of the nervouse system

Central & Peripheral

8

Centeral

Brain and spinal cord

9

Peripheral

made up of nerve cells that send messages between the centeral nervouse system and all areas of the body.

10

Neurons

send messages and communicate with each other

11

Cell Body

produces energy that fuels cells activity

12

Dendrites

thin fibers that receive the message from other neurons and send the message to the cell body

13

Axons

do the same as a dendrite in a different direction. There are less Axons. They carry the message away from the cell body.

14

Myelin

helps speed up the transmission of the message

15

Heath

protective barrier around the axon

16

Axon Terminals

at the end of the axon

17

Synapse

a bridge between two neurons

18

Types of Neurons

Sensory & Motor

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Sensory Neurons

are nerve cells that carry information recieved by the senses to the centeral nervouse system.

20

Motor Neurons

carries information from the centeral nervouse system to the muscles, glands, and influence their functions

21

Types of Neurotransmitters

Acetylocholine, Dopamine, Serotonin, Noradenaline

22

Acetylocholine

involved in the control of muscles

23

Dopamine

Motor Behavior (Parkinson's disease)

24

Serotonin

Emotional arousal

25

Noradenaline

preparing the body for action

26

Centeral Nervous system

made up of meurons of the spinal cord and the brain

27

Spinal reflexes

automatic response to something. ex. removing your hand from a hot stove

28

Peripheral Nervouse system

outside the centeral nervouse system. It transfers messages from centeral nwevouse system to extremities of the body.

29

Two divisions of the Peripheral system

Somatic & Automatic

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Somatic

Transmits sensory messages to the centeral nervouse system

31

Automatic

Occurring involuntarily-regulates the bodies bital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion, and blood presure.

32

Autonomic Nervouse System

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic

33

Symathetic

ACTIVATED energy reserve after an action has occured

34

Parasympathetic

RESTORES energy reserve after an action has occured

35

Brian

the control center

36

Three areas of the brain

Hindbrain, Mid-brain, and forebrain

37

Hindbrain

Medulla, Pons, and Cerebellum

38

Medulla

controls heartbeat, blood presure, and breathing

39

Pons

In front of the medulla. Body movement, attention, sleep, and alertness.

40

Cerbellum

"little brain" Balance and coordination

41

Mid-brain

Vision and hearing

42

Apart of the mid-brain Reticular Activation System

Attention, sleep, and arousal- makes people alert
(Sorts out noises rather than alerting you to all of them.)

43

Forebrain

Thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum

44

Thalmus

relay station for sensory information. It takes messages from the eyes, pain sensations from a pinched finger, or a loud bang when a firecracker goes off.

45

Hypothalamus

Below the thalmus. Regulates body temp., storage of mutrients, motivation, and emotion

46

Limbic system

Memory, emotion, hunger, sex, and aggression

47

Cerebral Cortex

composed of two sides- left and right hemisphere

48

Corbus callosum

is what commects the two sides

49

Four sides of the Cerbeal cortex

Frontal lobe, parietal lobe, teporal lobe, and occipital lobe

50

Frontal lobe

helps us move our body

51

Parietal lobe

skin senses-cold, touch, pain

52

Temporal lobe

Hearing and auditory

53

Occipital lobe

Visual

54

Association areas

areas that put all the different forms of stimulus together. (3-D objects)

55

Language functions

most ofger in the left hemisphere for most people, even left handed people

56

Broca's area-frontal lobe

controls areas of the fave used for speaking

57

Wernicke's area-teporal lobe

pieces together sounds and sights. Damage to this area may make it difficulty to understand what someone is saying

58

Right and left brain

Right brain-associated with logic, problem solving and mathematical computation (Logical)
Left brain-more concered with imagination, art feelings, and special relations. (Creative)

59

The corpus callosum is cut to work on such things as severe epilepsy.

After this type operation the two hemispheres can no longer communicate and thus it is earier for psychologists to study their serparate operations or tasks.