cardiac assessment review module in canvas
The resistance against which the ventricle must pump
Myocardial fibers respond with a more forceful contraction when they are stretched.
Startling's law of the heart
Diastolic blood pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure
Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
Difference between auscultated apical pulse and palpated radial pulse.
Sounds produced by turbulent blood flow through the heart or walls of large arteries
Indicates volume overload, as in heart failure
Volume of blood distending the ventricles at the end of diastole (the gas in the tank!)
are pressures higher on the left or right side of the heart?
are arterial or venous pressures higher in the body?
what is S1 caused by?
closure of the AV (tricuspid and mitral) valves
what causes S2?
caused by closure of the pulmonic and aortic valves.
S1 signals beginning of _____ while S2 signals the beginning of ______
low-pitched and sounds like the distant rumble of thunder (AKA ventricular gallop)
heard immediately before S1 (te-lub-dub) and is also called an atrial gallop
is S3 and S4 best heard with the bell or diaphragm and why?
the bell because they are low sounds
In your assessment of a normal adult, where would you expect to palpate the apical impulse?
Fifth left intercostal space at the midclavicular line
During inspection of the precordium of an adult patient, you notice the chest moving in a forceful manner along the fourth and fifth intercostal space at the midclavicular line. This most likely suggests:
enlargement of the left ventricle
pacemaker of the heart
what is the order of the electrical stimulus of the cardiac cycle?
SA node - AV node - bundle of His - bundle branches - Purkinje fibers
the rhythm is regular, there are normally shaped "P" waves, and the "PR" interval is within normal limits (0.12 - 0.20 seconds)
rate of sinus rhythm
what is the QRS complex of sinus?
PR interval of sinus
the rhythm is irregular and the rate varies depending on how fast impulses can get through the AV node
P waves are absent in this rhythm
The atria contract toward the end of diastole and push the remaining blood into the ventricles.
"P" wave is generally not visible and the "QRS" complex is wide and bizarre in appearance (>0.12 seconds). It looks like a bunch of PVCs in a row
how many PVCs constitute Vtach?
3 or more in a row
in vtach, If the patient is unstable but still has a pulse, _________ is performed.
in vtavh, If the patient is unresponsive, what do you do?
call for help and hit the "code blue" button, check for breathing and pulse, if none begin chest compressions.
There is no electrical activity going on in the heart and as a result - no cardiac output
There are a bunch of rapid, chaotic impulses going on in the ventricle producing nothing much but some ventricular quivering - there is no cardiac output!!
Patient reports worsening chest pain that now occurs with activity and at rest.
Patient reports crushing chest pain that is not relieved by his usual dose of nitroglycerin.
Patient reports chest discomfort whenever he goes bowling that is relieved by sitting and resting for a few minutes.
Patient has a history of migraine headaches and reports chest pain that wakes her up at night.
The patient with this type of angina is at an increased risk for progressing to an MI.
patient with EKG changes suggestive of ischemia, but serum biomarkers (CK-MB, troponin) do not elevate
patient with ischemic ST segment changes (ST depression) and elevation of serum biomarkers
patient with ST segment elevation (indicates infarction) and elevation of serum biomarkers