cardiac assessment review module in canvas

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1

The resistance against which the ventricle must pump

afterload

2

Myocardial fibers respond with a more forceful contraction when they are stretched.

Startling's law of the heart

3

Diastolic blood pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure

Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

4

Difference between auscultated apical pulse and palpated radial pulse.

Pulse deficit

5

Sounds produced by turbulent blood flow through the heart or walls of large arteries

murmur

6

Indicates volume overload, as in heart failure

S3

7

Volume of blood distending the ventricles at the end of diastole (the gas in the tank!)

preload

8

are pressures higher on the left or right side of the heart?

left

9

are arterial or venous pressures higher in the body?

arterial

10

what is S1 caused by?

closure of the AV (tricuspid and mitral) valves

11

what causes S2?

caused by closure of the pulmonic and aortic valves.

12

S1 signals beginning of _____ while S2 signals the beginning of ______

systole; diastole

13

low-pitched and sounds like the distant rumble of thunder (AKA ventricular gallop)

S3

14

heard immediately before S1 (te-lub-dub) and is also called an atrial gallop

S4

15

is S3 and S4 best heard with the bell or diaphragm and why?

the bell because they are low sounds

16

In your assessment of a normal adult, where would you expect to palpate the apical impulse?

Fifth left intercostal space at the midclavicular line

17

During inspection of the precordium of an adult patient, you notice the chest moving in a forceful manner along the fourth and fifth intercostal space at the midclavicular line. This most likely suggests:

enlargement of the left ventricle

18

pacemaker of the heart

SA node

19

what is the order of the electrical stimulus of the cardiac cycle?

SA node - AV node - bundle of His - bundle branches - Purkinje fibers

20

the rhythm is regular, there are normally shaped "P" waves, and the "PR" interval is within normal limits (0.12 - 0.20 seconds)

sinus

21

rate of sinus rhythm

60-100

22

what is the QRS complex of sinus?

0.04-0.12 sec

23

PR interval of sinus

0.12-0.20 sec

24

the rhythm is irregular and the rate varies depending on how fast impulses can get through the AV node

afib

25

P waves are absent in this rhythm

Afib

26

The atria contract toward the end of diastole and push the remaining blood into the ventricles.

atrial kick

27

"P" wave is generally not visible and the "QRS" complex is wide and bizarre in appearance (>0.12 seconds). It looks like a bunch of PVCs in a row

V tach

28

how many PVCs constitute Vtach?

3 or more in a row

29

in vtach, If the patient is unstable but still has a pulse, _________ is performed.

cardioversion

30

in vtavh, If the patient is unresponsive, what do you do?

call for help and hit the "code blue" button, check for breathing and pulse, if none begin chest compressions.

31

There is no electrical activity going on in the heart and as a result - no cardiac output

asystole

32

There are a bunch of rapid, chaotic impulses going on in the ventricle producing nothing much but some ventricular quivering - there is no cardiac output!!

v fib

33

Patient reports worsening chest pain that now occurs with activity and at rest.

stable angina

34

Patient reports crushing chest pain that is not relieved by his usual dose of nitroglycerin.

myocardial infarcation

35

Patient reports chest discomfort whenever he goes bowling that is relieved by sitting and resting for a few minutes.

stable angina

36

Patient has a history of migraine headaches and reports chest pain that wakes her up at night.

prinzmetal's angina

37

The patient with this type of angina is at an increased risk for progressing to an MI.

unstable angina

38

patient with EKG changes suggestive of ischemia, but serum biomarkers (CK-MB, troponin) do not elevate

UA

39

patient with ischemic ST segment changes (ST depression) and elevation of serum biomarkers

NSTEMI

40

patient with ST segment elevation (indicates infarction) and elevation of serum biomarkers

STEMI