A&P Chapter 17-19

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1

Why is blood classified as connective tissue?

the fibrin threads

2

Functions of Blood

1. Distribution (Oxygen, nutrients, hormones)

2. Regulation (Body temp. ph, fluid volume)

3. Protection (Prevention of blood loss & Infection)

3

Blood pH

7.35, 7.45

4

Blood temp

38oC, 100.4 oF

5

Average volume of blood in male

5-6

6

Average volume of blood in female

4-5

7

Blood percentage of body's weight

8%

8

Percentage of Plasma

55%

9

Percentage of Buffy Coat

<1%

10

Percentage of Erythrocytes

45%

11

Formed Elements

Buffy Coat (Leukocytes, Platelets)

& Erythrocytes

12

Hematocrit

means “Blood Fraction” and is a percentage of the blood component relative to total blood volume

13

Hematocrit Equation

(Height of Element Column/ Height of Column) * 100%

14

Percentage of Plasma

55%

15

2 Parts of Blood

Non-living - Plasma

Living - Formed Elements

16

Percentage of Plasma Water

90%

17

Percentage of Proteins in Plasma

8%

18

Proteins in Plasma

Albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, Metabolic proteins, antibacterial proteins , hormones

19

Percentage of albumin in plasma

60%

20

Albumin

exerts osmotic pressure to maintain water balance between blood and tissue

21

percentage of globulins in proteins

36%

22

Globulins - Alpha and Beta

transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins

23

Globulins - Gamma

antibodies released primarily by plasma cells during immune response

24

Percentage of Clotting Proteins in Plasma

4%

25

Clotting Proteins

fibrinogen and prothrombin

26

Percentage of Non-Proteins in Plasma

2%

27

Percentage of Erythrocytes in Males

47%

28

Percentage of Erythrocytes in Females

42%

29

Hemoglobin in Male

13-18g

30

Hemoglobin Female

12-16g

31

Hemoglobin Infant

14-20g

32

Hematopoiesis

blood cell formation

33

erythropoiesis occurs

in the red marrow found in axial skeleton and epiphysis of long bones

34

aged or damaged RBCs are broken down and the hemoglobin is separated into its components to form...

bilirubin

35

Functions of Leukocyte

diapedesis

36

Diapedesis

the ability to slip out of the capillary blood vessels

...by recognising adhesion molecules called selectins

37

Granulocytes

Basophils, Eosinophils, and Neutrophils

38

Agranulocytes

Lymphocytes and Monocytes

39

Basophils

- rare, 0.5 to 1% of leukocytes

- contain histamine-filled granules which act as a vasodilator and an attractant for other WBCs.

Binding to immunoglobin E causes the release of histamine

40

Eosinophils

–response to parasitic worms and to reduce the severity of allergies

- 2 to 4% of the leukocytes

- contain a 2 lobule nuclei and granules that stain deep red with an acid dye (eosin)

41

Neutrophils

- 50 to 70% of the WBCs.

-responsible for attacking bacteria and some fungi and stain a pale lilac

-3 to 6 lobule nuclei and very fine granules that contain defensins and hydrolytic enzymes (lysosomes)

42

Lymphocytes

–25% or more of the WBC

- contain a large nuclei which takes up the majority of space within the cell and are classified by their size (small, medium, and large).

-play a crucial role in immunity

43

T-Lymphocytes

-act directly against virus infected and tumor forming cells

44

B-Lymphocytes

– give rise to plasma cells which produce antibodies that are released in the blood

45

Monocytes

- active phagocytic cells

- 3 to 8% of the WBCs

- help in the defense against viruses, bacterial parasites, and chronic infections (example tuberculosis)

46

Hemostasis

stoppage of bleeding

47

Fibrinolysis

breaks down clots when they are no longer needed by plasmin (enzyme)

48

Low RBC

anemia - decrease in RBC or RBC's oxygen

49

Acute Hemorrhagic anemias

brief blood loss (stabbing)

50

Chronic Hemorrhagic Anemias

slow continuous loss of blood over time

51

Hemolytic anemias

erythrocytes rupture or lyse prematurely

52

Aplastic Anemias

destruction or inhibition of red marrow by certain bacterial toxins, drugs, or ionizing radiation

53

Iron - Deficiency Anemia

insufficient iron resulting in microcytes (small pale erythrocytes that are produced as a result.

54

Pernicious anemia

B12 deficiency resulting in microcytes are large pale erythrocytes

55

Thalassemias

One of the hemoglobin chains is absent or faulty resulting in thin delicate erythrocytes

56

Sickle Cell Anemia

– (hereditary) that causes the abnormal formation of the beta hemoglobin to link together under low oxygen conditions causing the blood to take on a sickle like shape

57

Polycythemia Vera

may indicate bone marrow cancer

58

Secondary Polycythemia

the need to have more oxygen carrying blood cells due to high altitudes or less available oxygen

59

Blood Doping

removing blood for later infusion to provide temporary state of polycythemia to increase performance in sports.

60

Leukocytosis

High WBC

– indication of viral or bacterial infection, metabolic disease, hemorrhage, or poisoning

61

Leukopenia

Low WBC

- indicate typhoid fever, measles, infectious hepatitis or cirrhosis, tuberculosis, or excessive antibody or x-ray therapy

62

Infectious Mononucleosis

“ kissing disease” a highly contagious viral disease most often seen in children and young adults caused by the Epstein-Barr virus…

- associated with being tired, achy, chronic sore throat and a low-grade fever. (a.k.a Mono or Cooties)

63

Thrombus

A clot that forms in an unbroken blood vessel

64

Embolus

A thrombus that floats freely in the blood vessels

65

Embolism

When an embolus gets to a blood vessel that is too small for it to travel through

66

Hemolytic Disease of the New Born

when an Rh negative mother has an Rh positive child and becomes exposed to the blood the mother will make antibodies targeting the next Rh positive child

67

endocardium

membrane that surrounds the inside of the heart

68

Atriums

receiving chambers

69

Ventricles

Pumps of the heart

70

SA (sinoatrial) Node

pacemaker, located in right atrium, regulates contraction of both atriums and stimulates the AV node

71

AV (atrioventricular) node

delays the signal received by the SA node by 0.1 sec before stimulating the AV bundle which leads to the stimulation of the left and right bundle branches, the associated purkinje fibres, and contraction of ventricles

72

Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)

is a recording of the electrical changes that occur during the cardiac cycle.

73

P Wave

atrial depolarisation

- stimulation and contraction of the atriums

74

QRS Complex

ventricular depolarisation

- stimulation and contraction of the ventricles

75

T Wave

lower heart chambers are relaxing (ventricular repolarization)

76

Patrias AV Node Blockage due to...

longer P-Q

77

Total AV Node Blockage

ventricle beats independent of the atrium

78

Prolonged QRS...

a block at left or right bundle branch

79

Arrhythmias

irregular heart rhythms

80

Tachycardia

a heart rate of over 100 beats/min

81

Fibrillation

a condition of rapid uncoordinated heart contractions

82

Bradycardia

heart rate less than 60 beats/min

83

"Lub" Sound

closing of the AV (atrioventricular) valves, bicuspid and tricuspid valves, which occurs at the beginning of ventricular systole (atria diastole).

84

"Dub" Sound

closing of the semilunar valves which occurs at the end of ventricular systole.

85

Murmurs

–valves not closing properly or completely. This allows for a backflow of blood (regurgitation) and the swishing sound to occur

86

Stenotic Valve

valve is constricted or stenosed causing a high pitched screeching or a clicking noise when the valve should be opening

87

Systole

period of contraction associated with forcing blood out

88

Diastole

period of relaxation which allows the chamber to refill

89

Average Heart Beat

75 beats/minute

90

Length of Cardiac Cycle

0.8sec

91

length of atrial systole

0.1 sec

92

ventricular systole

0.3 sec

93

Quiescent period (period of relaxation)

0.4 sec

94

Cardiac Output

CO = Heart Rate x Stroke Volume

95

Stroke Volume

SV = EDV - ESV

96

Function of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

secreted by the adrenal gland enhances heart rate and contractility

97

Thyroxine

causes a slower more sustained increase in heart rate and enhances the effect of epinephrine and norepinephrine.

98

Pulmonary Congestion

The left side of the heart fails to pump blood to the extremities thus causing a build up of fluid (edema) in the lungs

99

Peripheral Congestion

The right side of the heart fails to pump blood to the lungs thus causing blood to stagnate in the organs and edema to occur in the extremities like the ankles, feet, and fingers

100

Congenital Heart Defects

Defects of the heart which are found in newborns or in babies before birth

101

Tunica intima/interna (endothelium)

a single layer that lines the inside of the blood vessel allowing for a decrease in blood flow resistance

102

Tunica Media

a bulky layer containing smooth muscle and elastin which can regulate the diameter of blood vessels and control resistance and blood pressure.

103

Tunica Externa/Adventitia

a layer of areolar and fibrous connective tissue that functions to support and protect the blood vessels

104

Average Systolic Blood Pressure

120 mmHg

105

Average Diastolic Pressure

70-80 mmHg

106

Beginning of Capillary Blood Pressure

40 mmHg

107

End of Capillary Blood Pressure

20 mmHg

108

Venous Blood Pressure

60 mmHg

109

Vasomotor Center

the center that regulates the changes in blood vessel diameter

110

Baroreceptors

Neural receptors located in the carotid sinuses, aortic arch and major blood vessels and functions as a internal measurer of blood pressure

111

Chemoreceptors

Receptors which detect change in oxygen and carbon dioxide content as well as blood pH

112

Atrial Natriuetic Peptide (ANP) – a substance produced by the atrium of the heart that causes blood pressure and blood volume to decline •Angiotensin II – stimulates intense vasoconstriction causing a rise in systemic blood pressure. It also stimulates the release of ADH and Aldosterone–Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) – secreted by the pituitary this hormone causes intense vasoconstriction in addition to it’s known effect of stimulating the kidneys to conserve water –Aldosterone – a hormone that enhances renal reabsorption of sodium and stimulates the pituitary to release ADH

A substance produced by the atrium of the heart that causes blood pressure and blood volume to decline

113

Angiotensin II

stimulates intense vasoconstriction causing a rise in systemic blood pressure. It also stimulates the release of ADH and Aldosterone

114

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

secreted by the pituitary this hormone causes intense vasoconstriction in addition to it’s known effect of stimulating the kidneys to conserve water

115

Aldosterone

a hormone that enhances renal reabsorption of sodium and stimulates the pituitary to release ADH

116

Endothelium-derived Factor

Chemicals from the endothelium which affect vascular smooth muscle

117

Endothelin

functions as a vasoconstrictor by enhancing calcium uptake in vascular smooth muscle

118

Prostaglandin-derived growth factor (PDGF)

vasoconstrictor, secreted by endothelium

119

Nitric Oxide (NO)

is a endothelial released product that causes vasodilation

- that can stimulate the release are acetylcholine, bradykinin, and nitroglycerine

120

Transient Hypertension

normal adaptations due to fever, physical exertion, and emotional upset

121

Persistent Hypertension

found in obese people because the roral length of their blood vessels is relatively greater

122

Chronic Hypertension

warns of peripheral resistance and can lead to heart failure, vascular disease, renal failure, and stroke

123

Orthostatic Hypotension

temporary low blood pressure and dizziness when rising suddenly from a reclining or sitting position

124

Chronic Hypotension

low blood pressure caused by poor nutrition or anemic individuals whose blood viscosity is low

125

Acute Hypotension

rapid loss of blood pressure often associated with circulatory shock

126

Circulatory shock

blood vessles are inadequately filled and blood can not circulate normally

127

Hypovolemic shock

large scale loss in blood usually resultant from an acute injury that leads to poor circulation

128

Vascular shock

Extreme vasodilation causes poor circulation

129

Cardiogenic Shock

when the heart is so inefficient that it cannot sustain adequate circulation