Terminology: Urinary Quiz 2 of 3

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1

Urinary Tract Infection

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2

Complicated Urinary Tract Infection

Recurrent UTI’s, occurs in patient’s with coexisting obstruction, stones,

or catheters; abnormal GU tract; diabetes; neurologic diseases;

antibiotic resistance; immunosuppression; or pregnancy-induced

changes. Patient is at increased risk for pyelonephritis, urosepsis, and

renal damage.

3

Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection

Occurs in a normal, healthy urinary tract and typically involves the

bladder only.

4

Acute Pyelonephritis

acute inflammation of the renal parenchyma and pelvis characterized by small cortical abscesses and yellowish streaks in the medulla resulting from the accumulation of pus in the collecting tubules and interstitial tissue.

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Chronic Pyelonephritis

chronic inflammation of the renal parenchyma and pelvis resulting from bacterial infection, characterized by calyceal deformities and overlying large flat renal scars with patchy distribution.

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Urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra.

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Urethral Diverticula

Localized outpouchings of the urethra. Most often resulting from

enlargement of obstructed periurethral glands.

8

Interstitial Cystitis

a chronic inflammatory condition of unknown etiology involving the epithelium and muscularis of the bladder, resulting in reduced bladder capacity, pain relieved by voiding, and severe bladder irritative symptoms.

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Genitourinary Tuberculosis

A disease of the genitourinary system. This includes the entire urinary

tract and reproductive system. This is an extrapulmonary form of

tuberculosis.

10

Acute Glomerulonephritis

inflammation and subsequent damage of the glomeruli leading to hematuria, proteinuria, and azotemia; it may be caused by primary renal disease or systemic conditions.

11

Good Pasture Syndrome

an autoimmune disorder. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue. People with thissyndrome develop substances that attack a protein called collagen in the tiny air sacs in the lungs and the filtering units (glomeruli) of the kidneys.

12

Nephrotic Syndrome

a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine.

usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in your kidneys that filter waste and excess water from your blood.

13

Urosepsis

is a condition where a urinary tract infection spreads from the urinary tract to the bloodstream, causing a systemic infection that circulates through the body through the bloodstream.

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Renal Pelvis

the large bony structure near the base of the spine to which the hind limbs or legs are attached in humans and many other vertebrates.

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Vesicoureteral Reflux

is a condition in which urine flows backward from the bladder to one or both ureters and sometimes to the kidneys.

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Bacteremia

is the presence of bacteria in the blood. Blood is normally a sterile environment, so the detection of bacteria in the blood (most commonly accomplished by blood cultures) is always abnormal.

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Sepsis / Septic Shock

A widespread infection causing organ failure and dangerously low blood pressure.

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E. Coli

Escherichia coli - is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus. Commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.

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Dyspareunia

Persistent or recurrent genital pain that occurs just before, during, or after intercourse.

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WBC Casts

tiny tube-shaped particles that can be found when urine is examined under the microscope during a test called urinalysis

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WBC "shift to the left"

an infection or inflammation present and the bone marrow is producing more WBCsand releasing them into the blood before they are fully mature.

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Atrophy

A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.

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Transurethral Ultrasonography

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Renal Parenchyma

The functional kidney tissue consisting of nephrons.

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Hydronephrosis

is a condition that typically occurs when a kidney swells due to urine failing to properly drain from the kidney to the bladder. This swelling most commonly affects only one kidney, but it can involve both kidneys.

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LUTS

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) refer to a group of clinical symptoms involving the bladder, urinary sphincter, urethra, and, in men, the prostate. Although LUTS is a preferred term for prostatism, and it is more common for the term to be applied to men; lower urinary tract symptoms also affect women.

Causes:

The blockage may be caused by an enlarged prostate gland or a urethral stricture (scarring of the urethra). Enlargement of the prostate gland can lead to both storage and voiding symptoms. Other causes of LUTS include some medicines andneurological diseases such as stroke and Parkinson's disease.

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BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)

A test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. Urea is made when protein is broken down in your body. Urea is made in the liver and passed out of your body in the urine. This test is done to see how well your kidneys are working.

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Creatinine

the end product of muscle and protein metabolism and is

released at a constant rate. (more reliable than BUN as a determinant

of renal function)

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Post-void Dribbling

Occurs when urine remaining in the urethra after voiding the bladder

slowly leaks out after urination.

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Voiding cystourethrography

A test done to examine the bladder and urethra while the bladder fills and empties. A radiopaque liquid (that can be seen on x-ray) is placed in the bladder through a catheter. The bladder is filled until the patient urinates. Radiographs (x-rays) are usually taken before, during, and after voiding. This test can reveal abnormalities of the inside of the urethra and bladder. The test can also determine whether the flow of urine is normal when the bladder empties.

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Urethral-Vaginal Fistula

an abnormal passageway between the urethra and the vagina. It results in urinary incontinence.

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Antibodies

also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Creatinine Clearance

measurement of the clearance of endogenous creatinine, used for evaluating the glomerular filtration rate.

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Hypercoagulability

Abnormally increased coagulability.

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Anticoagulant Prophylaxis

prevention of asymptomatic DVT; associated with an increased

bleeding risk; the therapeutic benefits outweigh the risk of bleeding.

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Cystitis

Inflammation of the bladder