Chapter 7 Micro

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1

A recombinant cell

is a cell that receives DNA from an outside source and incorporates it into its own.

2

What is the hallmark of all horizontal gene transfers?

Transfer of DNA between organisms of the same generation

3

Which of the following is an example of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria?

Transduction, conjugation, and transformation

4

What is unique about transduction compared to normal bacteriophage infection?

Transduction transfers DNA from the chromosome of one cell to another.

5

How is generalized transduction different from specialized transduction?

Generalized transduction is initiated during lytic cycle of a virulent bacteriophage; specialized transduction is initiated during the lysogenic cycle of a temperate bacteriophage.

6

A transducing phage

contains fragments of the host chromosome instead of the viral genome

7

When a transducing phage interacts with a new host cell,

the DNA from the previous host can recombine with the new host chromosome

8

Bacterial conjugation is often referred to as bacterial sex. Why is this term inaccurate?

Conjugation does not result in the formation of new offspring.

9

What must occur for bacterial conjugation to take place?

The cells must come into contact with each other.

10

Which statement about conjugation is false?

Conjugation is a process of bacterial reproduction.

11

Based on the animation, what is transferred during bacterial conjugation?

A bacterial plasmid

12

Competent cells are cells that

can take up DNA from their surrounding environment and integrate it into their own chromosomes by recombination.

13

Mice that are injected with only the R strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae

stay healthy, because their immune systems can kill this strain easily.

14

What characteristic of the S strain allows it to evade the immune system of the mice?

The cells have a capsule

15

What most likely explains the recovery of live S strain cells from a mouse injected with heat-killed S strain mixed with live R strain cells?

The R strain picked up the S strain DNA, enabling it to produce a capsule

16

Which finding is most surprising from Griffith’s experiments?

S strain cells are isolated from the blood of mice infected with heat-killed S strains and live R strains.

17

What kind of gene transfer between bacterial cells in the same generation utilizes the help of a virus?

Transduction

18

What was the scientific result of Frederick Griffith's experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae?

He showed that the DNA from strain S cells could transform strain R cells

19

The Ames test demonstrates that a chemical is

mutagenic in Salmonella.

20

A mutation that causes production of a defective pilus in a bacterium will prevent __________.

conjugation