PHA 340: Intro to Pharmacotherapy (part II)

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1

Irreversible cell injury can lead to ___________

Necrosis

2

Examples of irreversible nuclear changes

  • Pyknosis
  • Karyorrhexis
  • Karyolysis
3

Shrinkage/condensation of nucleus

Pyknosis

4

Fragmentation of nucleus

Karyorrhexis

5

Dissolution of nucleus

Karyolysis

6

Defined as denatured cellular proteins

Coagulation necrosis

7

Coagulation necrosis can be caused by ______________

Ischemia

8

This type of necrosis is a mixture of proteins and lipids, giving it a "cheesy" appearance

Caseous necrosis

9

What can cause caseous necrosis?

Tuberculosis, syphilis, and certain fungi

10

What is wet gangrene defined by?

Presence of bacterial infection

11

What is dry gangrene defined by?

Little to no infection; inadequate blood supply to the area

12

This form of necrosis is characterized by rapid death and dissolution of cells. The cells dissolve, leaving a fluid filled cavity.

Liquification necrosis

13

What can cause liquification necrosis?

  • Bacterial and sometimes fungal infections
  • In brain: cerebral artery occlusion
14

Is a type of "programmed cell death" induced by normal physiology, DNA damage, and infections

Apoptosis

15

What happens during apoptosis?

  1. Destructive enzymes activated/synthesized
  2. Changes in cell morphology (shrinkage of cytoplasm, condensation and cleavage of nucleus)
  3. Formation of apoptotic bodies (phagocytized)
16

The external pathway of apoptosis is activated by what external signals?

  • TNF
  • FAS
  • TRAIL
17

Once activated, which intermediary proteins and capsases are activated in the external apoptosis pathway?

  • Adaptor proteins
  • Capsase 8
18

The internal pathway of apoptosis is activated by what?

  • DNA damage
  • Malformed proteins
  • Absence of cell survival factors
19

Once activated, which genes, intermediary proteins, and capsases are activated in the internal apoptosis pathway?

  • p53 transcription
  • Cytochrome C
  • Capsase 9
20

What is the sequence of events that takes place after the activation of capsase 8/9 in the external/internal apoptosis pathways?

  • Activation of capsase 3
  • Activation of capsase 6, 7
  • Formation of apoptotic bodies
21

In necrosis, there is a ______ (large/small) number of cells and inflammation _____(is/is not) triggered.

Large; is

22

In apoptosis, there is a ______ (large/small) number of cells and inflammation _____(is/is not) triggered.

Small; is not