Terminology: Urinary Quiz 1 of 3

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Urinating frequently at night (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: kidney disease with impaired concentrating ability, bladder obstruction, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, finding after renal transplant, excessive evening and nighttime fluid intake. (Lewis 1025)



Stinging pain in urethral area. Painful or difficult urination. (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: Urethral irritation, UTI, urethral calculus. Sign of UTI, interstitial cystitis, urethral calculus, and wide variety of pathologic conditions.

Discomfort pain or burning when urinating.


Costovertebral Angle (CVA)

one of two angles that outline a space over the kidneys that is formed by the rib cage and the vertebral column.(Lewis 1023)

located on your back at the bottom of your rib cage at the 12th rib. It’s the 90-degree angle formed between the curve of that rib and your spine.


Costal Vertebral Tenderness

pain is elicited by percussion of the area of the back overlying the kidney.



Blood in the urine (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: cancer of genitourinary tract, blood dyscrasias, kidney disease, urinary tract infection, stones in kidney or ureter, medications (anticoagulants) (Lewis 1025)



toxicity in the kidneys / nephrotoxins substance (Lewis 1020)

is one of the most common kidney problems and occurs when your body is exposed to a drug or toxin that causes damage to your kidneys. It can be temporary with a temporary elevation of lab values (BUN and/or creatinine). If these levels are elevated, these may be due to a temporary condition such as dehydration or you may be developing renal (kidney failure). If the cause of the increased BUN and/or creatinine levels is determined early, and your healthcare provider implements the appropriate intervention, permanent kidney problems may be avoided. (Chemocare.com)


Urine Hesitancy

Delay or difficulty in initiating urination. (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: Partial urethral obstruction, benign prostatic hyperplasia. (Lewis 1025).

difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream


Uremic Pruritus

Itching due to kidney failure.

or more aptly called "chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus" (CKD-aP), is chronic itching that occurs in patients with advanced or end-stage renal disease. It is known to affect about 20%-50% of patients with renal failure and often causes long-term pain and suffering. (medscape.com)


Urinary Urgency

sudden, compelling urge to urinate


Urinary Frequency

Increased incidence of urination (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: acutely inflamed bladder, retention with overflow, excess fluid intake, intake of bladder irritants, urethral calculus. (Lewis 1025)

the need to urinate more often than normal (more than every 2 hours)


Stress Incontinence

Involuntary urination with increase pressure (sneezing or coughing) (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: weakness of sphincter control, lack of estrogen, urinary retention. (Lewis 1025)

happens when physical movement or activity; coughing, sneezing, running or heavy lifting (puts pressure on your bladder)



technically no urination (24-hr urine output <100 mL) (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: acute kidney injury, end-stage renal disease, bilateral ureteral obstruction. (Lewis 1025)

when the kidneys stop producing urine.



diminished amount of urine in a given time (24-hr urine output of 100-400 mL) (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: severe dehydration, shock, transfusion reaction, kidney disease, end-stage renal disease. (Lewis 1025)



large volume of urine in given time (Lewis 1025)

Possible etiology & significance: diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, chronic kidney disease, diuretics, excess fluid intake, obstructive sleep apnea. (Lewis 1015)

Excessive urination; passing large amount of urine. >1500 ml / day



is the condition of urine containing WBC or puss



is one of the first studies done to evaluate disorders of the urinary tract (Lewis 1024)



component of the nephron that is a tuft of up to 50 capillaries where blood is filtered across the semipermeable into Bowman's capsule

(Lewis 1016)


CT Urogram

provides 3-D visualization of kidneys, ureters, and bladder. It can detect tumors, abscesses, suprarenal masses (e.g., adrenal tumor), and obstructions. Can be done with or without contrast media. (Lewis 1027)


Renal MRI

useful for visualization of kidneys. Not proven useful for detecting renal calculi or calcified tumors. Computer generated films rely on radio-frequency waves and alteration in magnetic field (Lewis 1028)


Renal Ultrasound

used to detect renal or perirenal masses (tumors, cysts) and obstructions. It can used safety in patients with renal failure.

Small external ultrasound probe is placed on patient's skin. Conductive gel is applied to skin. Noninvasive procedure involves passing sound waves into body structures and recording images as they are on sound waves and displays it in picture form.

(Lewis 1027)


Renal Arteriogram (Angiogram)

visualizes renal blood vessels. Can assist in diagnosing renal artery stenosis, additional or missing renal blood vessels, and renovascular hypertension. It can assist in differentiating between a renal cyst and renal tumor. Also included in workup of a potential renal transplant donor.

A catheter is inserted into the femoral artery and passed up the aorta to level of renal arteries. Contrast media is injected to outline renal blood supply.

(Lewis 1027)


Intravenous Pyelogram (IV Urography)

visualizes urinary tract after IV injection of contrast media. Size and shape of kidneys, ureters, and bladder can be evaluated. Cysts, tumors, and ureteral obstructions (strictures) cause a distortion in normal appearance of these structures. (Lewis 1027)

The renal function is determined by how long it takes the kidneys to excrete the contrast. (Slideshow: Lewis Chapter 44)

Contraindications: Patients with decreased renal function (can cause nephrotoxic) (Lewis 1027)

diagnostic study using IV contrast medium that is excreted through the urinary system used to examine the structure and function of the urinary system (Lewis 1027)


Kidney Biopsy (Renal Biopsy)

Obtains renal tissue for examination to determine type of kidney disease or to follow progress of kidney disease. (Lewis 1030)

Contraindications: bleeding disorders, single kidney, and uncontrolled hypertension. Relative contraindications include suspected renal infection, hydronephrosis, and possible vascular lesions. (Lewis 1030)

Technique is usually done as a skin (percutaneous) biopsy through needle insertion into lower lobe of kidney. Can be performed with CT or ultrasound guidance. (Lewis 1030)

procedure to obtain renal tissue for examination to determine renal disease; usually performed percutaneously with a biopsy needle (Lewis 1030)



Inspection of the interior of the bladder with a tubular scope (cystoscope) (Lewis 1028).


KUB (Kidney, Ureters, Bladder)

is a simple x-ray that looks at the structures of the renal system as well as detects renal calculi, strictures, calcium deposits, or obstructions. (Lewis 1027)