Test 3

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  1. What is leadership? the use of power and influences to achieve said operations (change, vision, inspiration)
    1. Defined:
      1. “An influence relationship among leaders & followers who intend real changes & outcomes that reflect their shared purposes” – Daft
      2. “Leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations” – Kouzes & Posner
      3. “One who influences others to attain goals.” – Bateman (Text)
2

Born:

Innate characteristics, Traits personality (traits effect)(within you)

3

Made:

Behavior determines effectiveness

4

2. What’s involved in leadership?

    1. Influence (not force)
    2. Intention - happens on purpose
    3. Leader
    4. Personal responsibility and integrity - don’t drink the koolaid
    5. Change/vision - comes with a vision
    6. Shared purpose
    7. Followers Ex: 1 follower
5

Toxic Triangle.

  1. Bad leader
  2. Susceptible Followers
  3. Conducive Environment
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3. Kouzes & Posner’s 5 Exemplary Leadership Practices

    1. Model the way
    2. Inspire a shared vision
    3. Challenge the process
    4. Enable others to act
    5. Encourage the heart
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4. Power vs. Influence

(a)Power

the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return

8

i. Latent capacity

something you don’t have to use

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Power vs. Influence

(b) Influence

the effect a person’s actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or actions of others

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i. Degree of actual change :

in attitudes , behavior and values

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5. Types of Power (These types can be different at times)

Hard Power

comes from position of authority (AKA organizational power or positional)

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Hard Power

i. Legitimate - right to give out authority

ii. Reward - can give out reward

iii. Coercive - can give out punishment

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5. Types of Power (These types can be different at times)

Soft Power

AKApersonal power, this sticks with the person no matter where they go

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Soft Power

i. Referent - certain characteristics that people like about you

ii. Expert - KSA that you have that other people depend on

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Responses to the Use of Power

Compliance

Appropriate use of hard power, use correct amount (Hospital Ex), people change behavior, but they don’t know the (WHY)

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Responses to Use of Power

Resistance

Excessive over use of hard power, can lead to resistance

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Responses to Use of Power

Internalization/Commitment

Soft/Personal Power, we want people to buy in (internalization). Changes behavior and attitude

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7.Leading (strategic leadership) vs. Management

Supervisory “leadership”

Provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.

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Supervisory “leadership”

i. AKA Management - status quo mission, stable,

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Leading (strategic leadership) vs. Management

Strategic leadership

Gives purpose and meaning to organizations, envisioning and creating a positive future.

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Leading (strategic leadership) vs. Management

Strategic leadership

i. AKA leadership; key distinction = VISION

ii. Vision defined

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8. Approaches to Leadership (Both Traits and Beh are Universal theories that go across all boards)

Trait Approach

A leadership perspective that attempts to determine the personal characteristics that ALL great leaders share. (1920’s study)

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trait-

a distinguishing characteristic belonging to a person

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Great man theory

people born with certain traits can be an effective leader. (males, traits, noble high class status)

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b. Behavioral Approach

A leadership perspective that attempts to identify what good leaders do (1930’s-1940’s)

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i. Two Categories of Leadership Behavior (2 types of study)

Task Performance Behaviors

(aka initiating structure, task-focused, production-oriented, directive leadership) (efficiency, output quality, scheduling)

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i. Two Categories of Leadership Behavior (2 types of study)

Group Maintenance Behaviors

(aka consideration, people-focused, concern for people (morale building, made people happy)

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ii. Ohio State vs. Michigan (independent constructs, a leader can do both, lead to less turnover and complaints)

1. Ohio State: Consideration & Initiating Structure behaviors

Conclusion

more satisfying employees, perform more, but led to high turnover and grievances (complaints)

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Ohio State

(independent constructs, a leader can do both, lead to less turnover and complaints)

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2. Michigan: Employee-

focused & Production-focused behaviors

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Michigan: Employee

Conclusion

perform more, but led to high turnover and grievances (complaints), more satisfying employee

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Michigan

concluded that these are opposite ends of the continuum, that they can only do 1.

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iii. Leaders also make decisions

To what extent do leaders involve employees in decision making? Follower participation in decision making varies! (effective vs ineffective)

a. Delegative - followers make decision

b. Facilitative - gets group to come to a consensus, 50/50 say c.Consultative - leader has 51% of say

d.Autocratic - 100% of the decision

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c. Contingency (Situational) Approaches (Theories) (depends on situation)

The best/most effective leadership behavior DEPENDS UPON a number of factors!

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ii. Vroom-Jago

-contingency model, best type of beh, and what to do across the board

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iii. Fiedler’s Contingency Model

task or relationship oriented, can’t be both. Has to be matched to situation

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iii. Fiedler’s Contingency Model

Leader member Relationship

exchange quality (the relationship)/ high or low

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iii. Fiedler’s Contingency Model

b. the task structure

a lot or little/ high or low

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iii. Fiedler’s Contingency Model

c. Leader has a lot of power/ high or low

  1. HHH - highly favorable
  2. LLL - highly unfavorable
  3. Moderately favorability is for relationship oriented leaders.. Task is for high and low
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Hersey & Blanchard --- Life cycle Theory

  • --- contingency their worried about is the leaders
  • they say you can be both Task and Relationship oriented
  • consideration (R.O.) & structure (T.O.) depends on the amount and type of followers depends on readiness
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Hersey & Blanchard --- Life cycle Theory

1) Job Maturity --- KSA /

(2) Psychological Maturity -- Motivated Confident

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Hersey & Blanchard --- Life cycle Theory

Low Ready Follower (R1) -

does not have KSA, don't have maturity, telling style (directive) details high T.O. & low levels of R.O. EX: Med student

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Hersey & Blanchard --- Life cycle Theory

Moderate Ready (R2)

  • follower - some Job maturity KSA , Som Psych maturity, Selling style (coaching style) High T.O. & High R.O. EX: intern student
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Hersey & Blanchard --- Life cycle Theory

High Ready follower R3

High maturity KSA, Some Maturity, Support Participating style, Low T.O. & High R.O. EX: DR

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Hersey & Blanchard --- Life cycle Theory

Very High Ready R4:

  • High Maturity KSA, Psych Ready, Delegating Low T.O./Low R.O. EX: Chief of Surgery
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Subs for Leadership

money, great team, self motivated, can take the place of good leader

47

9. Contemporary Views of Leadership (future vision/ soft power influence)

Authentic leader

leader is true to himself or herself while leading.

48

Authentic leader

  1. Self Awareness - know yourself, be true to yourself
  2. internalized moral perspective/ acts in accordance w/ morals
  3. Balanced processing - unselfish fairmineded during decision making

4. Relational transparency - no hidden agenda/ no alternative motives

49

Contemporary Views of Leadership (future vision/ soft power influence)

Servant leader

serve others’ needs while strengthening the organization/leadership upside down. (what can I do for you?)

50

Contemporary Views of Leadership (future vision/ soft power influence)

Charismatic leader

personal characteristics “ignite” in others excitement and motivation

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Contemporary Views of Leadership (future vision/ soft power influence)

Transformational leader

motivates people to transcend their personal interests for the good of the group.

i. Idealized influence/Charisma =

ii.Inspirational motivation =

iii. Individualized consideration =

iv. Intellectual stimulation =

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e. Transactional leaders/ Supervisory leadership

( Today, Mission, Hardpower)– manage through transactions, using their legitimate, reward, and coercive powers to give commands and exchange rewards for services rendered.

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Transactional leaders/ Supervisory leadership

Comprised of:

Contingent reward, Management by exception passive (MBEP), Management by exception active (MBEA)

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Transactional leaders/ Supervisory leadership

  1. Worst leader Laissez faire - ignoring obligations, watching the world burn around you
  2. MBEP: Mgmt by exception -- Passive - waiting for something bad to happen and then make action. Reactive to what happens

(Reactive wait until it burns

  1. Management by exception active - managing the situation before something happens

( Proactive to avoid fires)

  1. Best Management : Contingent Reward, Pay or no pay, extrinsic motivation, relying on outside sources
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Motivation

the SET of energetic forces that energize, direct, and sustsin a person's efforts

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b. Motivation

Direction = what we will focus on

Intensity = how you are going to peform

Pesristance = how long you will put into effort

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Why does motivation matter

Motivation = Effort ----

Ability------ Performance

58

Theories of Motivation

Process Theories

focused on psychological processes that affect effort

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Theories of Motivation

Process Theories

1. Goal setting -

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Goal Setting Theory

goals energize and motivate

-- not just any goals... SMART Goals

Stretch Goals - targets that are demanading, close to impossible

Vertical - involve doing better

Horizontal - involve personal/professional development (broadering current activities and skills)

realistic attainable and time sensitive

61

Theories of Motivation

reinforcement

A.C. Skinner

Thorndike - said any behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated

(Goal) Behavior Modification - attempts to influence/imporve people's behavior

individual behavior is a function if it's consequences

62

consequences

1. positive reinforcement - add something to environment Ex: manager praises emp

2. negative reinforcement - remove consequence or withhold to increase behavior . Ex: Manager stops nagging

3. punishment - add a consequence to decrease behavior Ex: demote a employee to decrease bad beh

4. extinction - remove subtract or withhold a consequence to decrease behavior EX: Managers ignores employee

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Theories of Motivation

Expectancy

Suggest that motivation depends on individuals mental expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards

64

Mental Expectations (hi or low E, I, P)

Expectancy - beliefs that expectations will lead to performance

Ex: Dribble , Practice depnds into instrumentality

Instrumentality - belief that performance leads to reward...

Ex: Hitting baskets in basketball

Valence - value of reward

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Expectancy

Ranges from 0 (no chance) -1(guaranteed) -- a probability

Can be hindered

lack of resources

lack of supportive leadership

effort can't lead to performance

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Instrumentality

Can be hindered by

  • Poor methods for measuring performance
  • inadequate budget to provide outcomes, even when performance is high
  • time delays
  • Beliefs regarding whether performance will lead to outcomes; is performing instrumental in getting the reward/outcome?
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iii. Motivation is fostered when these three mental expectations

expectancy, instrumentality, and valence - are high

        1. These 3 beliefs are based in past learning, experience, & self-perceptions
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Valence - anticipated value of outcomes/rewards

          1. Ranges from -1 (I don’t want it; punishment) to 1 (I want it; raise); 0 indicates no value to YOU
          2. Individuals’ needs determine the valence of rewards/outcomes
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Increase Expectancy

  • Provide an environment that helps people to perform
  • offer training , support (instrumental & Social), needed resources

Identify VALUED outcomes

--- understand what YOUR people want from work

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h. Equity Theory (a process theory)

i. People are motivated when they believe they receive fair rewards

ii. We evaluate equity by a ratio of inputs to outcomes (Your Outcomes / Your Inputs compared to Others’ Outcomes / Others’ Inputs)

iii. We compare ourselves to others

        1. Therefore, motivation also depends on the outcomes received by other employee
        2. iv When equation O/I is balanced, you’ll maintain your current level of effort (persistence & intensity)
        3. v. Any imbalance of the O/I ratios causes equity distress and we have to rebalance!
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inputs:

increases and decreases

time, effort, loyalty, training, education, skills

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Outcomes
increases and decreases

salary, recognition, perks, intrinsic motivation

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A Bit of Nuance/Caution

Equity theory is based on PERCEPTION

  • perception is reality
  • can't always win these battles

Its not always possible to get the outcome we want (Distributive Justice)

  • According procedural justice is Critical
  • PJ= fairness of decision making Process
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What do we feel when the equation is imbalanced IN your favor?

a. What do we do to restore balance?

What do we feel when the equation is imbalanced OUT of your favor?

b.What do we do to restore balance? 5 things

...

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i. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (content theory)

i. People are motivated to satisfy unmet needs in a specific order

ii. Once a need is satisfied, it’s no longer motivating

iii. Lower level (extrinsic needs) followed by higher-level (intrinsic needs)

1. physiological - food water shelter,lower order, what money can buy

2. safety - we are in a safe lace, lower order, what money can buy, extrinsic rewards

3. Love/Belongingness - intrinsic rewards

4. Esteem/ Ego

5. Self Actualization - true potential

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j. Alderfer’s ERG Theory (content theory) (work specific)

i. People have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously

Key difference between Maslow!

ii. Existence - All material and physiological desires

Examples: similar to physiological and safety

iii. Relatedness - Involve relationships with other people and are satisfied through the process of mutually sharing thoughts and feelings

Examples: love & esteem

Growth - Motivate people to productively or creatively change themselves or their environment

Examples: self actualization

77

k. McClelland Acquired Needs (content theory)

i. We all have 3 basic needs that we acquire over a lifetime; we each have them to varying degrees. These needs guide our behavior

ii. Need for achievement - A strong orientation toward accomplishment and an obsession with success and goal attainment

iii. Need for affiliation - A strong desire to be liked by other people

iv. Need for power - A desire to influence or control other people

1. Personalized power (bad) vs. Socialized power (good)

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l. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory (content theory)

i. Hygiene factors – factors that prevent dissatisfaction, keeps away dissatisfaction

Examples; company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision

ii. Motivators - Factors that make a job more motivating

Examples: job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings

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2. Designing Jobs that Motivate

    1. Consider the job itself!!
      1. Extrinsic Reward - Rewards given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person

a. Consider the job itself!!

i. Extrinsic Reward - Rewards given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person

1. Entirely under the control of someone else

ii. Intrinsic Reward - Reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself

        1. Comes from within; entirely under the control of the individual
        2. Lasting motivation comes from INTRINSIC rewards
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Designing Jobs that Motivate

Job rotation

Changing from one task to another to alleviate boredom

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Designing Jobs that Motivate

Job enlargement

Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom

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Designing Jobs that Motivate

Job enrichment

Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying

83

l. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory (content theory)

2. Designing Jobs that Motivate

i. HOW?!?! According to Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham)… Infuse the job with 5 job characteristics (VISAF); these job characteristics makes jobs more motivating and satisfying; happy workers are more motivated!

...

84

Variety

the task involves different job activities involving several skills and talents

85

Identity

the task involves the completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work

ex: identified for writing a book

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Autonomy

the task allows independence and discretion in making decisions

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Significance

the task/work has an important, positive impact on the lives of others

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Feedback

the task provides information about job performance

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Communication

transmission of info, through use of shared symbols

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Lateral (Communication)

a meeting will allow a shared experience, allows support for people with simliar challenges

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Upward (Communication)

a experience that an employee can express themselves to their boss

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Downward (Communication)

the way people can get info on the new direction the company is going throughout the organization, disseminate info for everybody

Information can get lose in downward communication

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Upward

MBA (Management by wandering around)

A cooperate manager will walk the floor, and find out whats going on directlly with the customers.

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Informal Communication

any information that an organization doesn't saction

-- grapevine, chatting, an informal communication channel, helps them solve problems

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Grapevine

Teaches them how to do their work successfully

Also can be source of gossip fear and anxiety, rumors

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Formal Communication

anything the organization is responsible for sending out

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Formal Communication

One Way Communication

info flows on way, from the receiver, with no feedback loop

Faster/ easier, but chance for errors/ misunderstandings

Noise = any interference in transmission

98

Two Way Communication

nofilter

the receptor is ready takes r feedback, from a sender to a receiver. thinks about the message processes it, and sends it back

more accurate, takes more time

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Two Way Communication

Perception

process of receiving and interpreting information

hear and see what suits our needs

100

Two Way Communication

Filtering

The process of withholding(gatekeepers), ignoring, or distorting information

-- often used in Upward Communication,

could protect someone so they want, look bad, feelings

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Breakdowns can occur at anytime

wrong word, wrong channel, receiver my have byass based on perception, receiver isn't ready to receive message

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Channel (Media) Richness (medium)

a way a message is conveyed

(mail, email, telephone, recording, medium)

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can be Medium richness

how much info can be transmitted thru the channel

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Continuum of Channel Richness

(face to face richess)

(1) Ability to handle multiple cues simultaneously

(2) Ability to facilitate rapid, 2 way feedback

(3) Ability to establish a personal focus for the communication

105

Continuum of Channel Richness

Disadvantages (Rich Channel)

impersonal

One-way

slow feedback

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Continuum

Advantages (Rich Channel)

Personal

Two way

Fast feedback

107

Continuum

Disadvantages (Least Rich)

impersonal

One- way

slow feedback

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Continuum

Advantages (Least Rich)

Provides Record

Premeditated

Early disseminated

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Electronic Communication

Advantages

.. share more info

... speed and efficiency in delivering routine messages to large numbers of people across vast geographic areas

... can save companies untold amounts of paper, postage, meetings, travels budgets

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Electronic

Disadvantages

  • Increase potential for errors, filtering, nonverbal cues might not be picked up on
  • deprives people of human moments, seen by the unintended
111

Nonverbal

messages transmitted through action and behavior

the way you listen, look, move, and react

also what you wear/present, When you present, office layout

.... All sends a message

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Sources of Non Verbal Communication

  • Facial expressions
  • Gestures
  • Paralinguistics (tone of voice, loudness, inflection, pitch)
  • Proxemics (personal space)
  • Eye gaze
  • haptics (touch)
  • appearance
  • Body language and posture
113

Non Verbal Communication

repetition - sends same message twice verbally & nonverbally

114

Contadiction

contradict the verbal message

115

Substitution

substitute for a verbal message

116

complement

add to or reinforce verbal message

117

Accent

make verbal message more prominent

118

Power of nonverbal

- 80-90% coummunication

  • Mehrabian, 1967: Body lanuguage (55%), Tone (38%), Actual Message (7%)
  • We uncousciously compare words and body language
  • --- When they're aligned, we understand the message
  • ---- when not aligned , we believe the body
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Communication in Crises

  1. Provide explanation of wrong
  2. Express concern
  3. Commit to wrong, and prevent from happening again
  4. express confidence that it doesn't reflect company values
120

Leaders During Crises

  • stay calm
  • be visible and supportive
  • respond timely
  • truthful
  • communicate a vision