Chapter 43: Neuroscience 2 - Evolution, structure, and function

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1

What are the three divisions of the brain?

Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain

2

What are the two divisions of the hindbrain?

Metencephalon and Myelencephalon

3

What is the one division of the midbrain?

Mesencephalon

4

What are the two divisions of the forebrain?

Telencephalon and Diencephalon

5

The size of the forebrain and its major subdivision (cerebrum) increases with?

A more complex nervous system

6

What allows the surface area of the cerebral cortex to increase more rapidly during evolution than size of the skull?

Convolutions

7

What is the relationship between body size and brain mass?

They are generally proportional

8

What are the two exceptions of species where the body size and brain mass are not proportional?

Dolphins and humans

9

What does greater size and folding provide for?

More surface area for greater processing and interpretation of information

10

How are the CNS and. PNS connected?

Anatomically and functionally

11

The ____ receives information from the ____.

CNS; PNS

12

Which part of the nervous system (CNS or PNS) interprets information and may initiate a response?

CNS

13

Which part of the nervous system (CNS or PNS) carries out responses?

PNS

14

What is white matter?

Myelinated axons grouped together to form tracts

15

What is Gray matter?

Neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and some unmyelinated axons

16

What forms the cerebral cortex?

Gray matter

17

What are the two parts of the spinal cord gray matter?

Dorsal and Ventral horns

18

What kind of information do dorsal horns hold? Ventral horns?

Dorsal: incoming (afferent)

Ventral: Outgoing (Efferent)

19

What are the three layers of meninges that the CNS is encased in?

Dura matter: outer thick layer

Arachnoid mater: Numerous connections to inner layer

Pia mater: Inner thin membrane on surface of brain and spinal cord

20

Where is the cerebrospinal fluid located?

Circulating through the subarachnoid space

21

What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?

Absorbs physical shocks

Transports substances to and from cells

22

What are the two divisions of the PNS?

Somatic nervous systems

Autonomic nervous system

23

What is the primary function of the somatic nervous system?

Sense external environment and control skeletal muscles

24

What do sensory neurons receive in the somatic nervous system?

Stimuli (heat, light, odors, chemicals (food), sounds, touch) and transmit to CNS

25

What do motor neurons control in the Somatic nervous system?

Skeletal muscles

26

What does the autonomic nervous system regulate?

Homeostasis and organ function

27

What is the autonomic nervous system predominantly composed of?

Motor neurons

28

Are motor neurons involuntary or voluntary?

Involuntary: usually cannot be consciously controlled

29

What do sensory neurons detect in the autonomic nervous system?

Internal body conditions

30

What does the autonomic nervous system control?

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

31

What does the somatic nervous system control?

Many conscious responses

32

What are the two subdivision of efferent nerves of the autonomic system?

Sympathetic division and Parasympathetic division

33

What is the purpose of sympathetic division?

Rapidly prepare body for danger or stress: fight-or-flight response

  • Increased heart rate, faster breathing, relaxed airways
34

What is the purpose of parasympathetic division?

Active during restful periods or after a meal: rest-or-digest response

  • Slow heart rate, promote digestion
35

(T/F) Sympathetic and Parasympathetic division act on the same organs but with opposing actions?

True

36

What are the three parts of the human hindbrain?

Cerebellum, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata

37

What are the two parts of the mid brain?

Tracts and Process sensory inputs

38

What sensory inputs foes the midbrain process>

Several types, like vision, olfaction, and audition

39

What is the brainstem?

Comprised of medial oblongata, pons, and midbrain

40

What do all three parts of the brainstem contain to form the reticular formation?

Nuclei

41

What is the reticular formation?

Network of nuclei and tracts that send signals to other brain regions

42

What does the reticular formation maintain, control, and regulate?

Maintain and controls: alertness, consciousness, and sleep

Regulation: respiration and cardiovascular systems

43

What are the two main divisions of the forebrain?

Cerebrum and Diencephalon

44

What 2 subdivisions are in the cerebrum?

Cerebral cortex and Limbic system (hippocampus)

45

What 2 subdivisions are in the diencephalon?

Thalamus and Hypothalamus

46

What does the pineal gland produce?

Melatonin

47

What are the two hemispheres of the cerebrum connected by?

Corpus collosum

48

The severing of the corpus collosum was used in the past to treat what?

Epilepsy

49

What happens in the left hemisphere?

Understanding language and producing speech

50

What happens in the right hemisphere?

Nonverbal memories, recognizing faces, and interpreting emotions

51

What are the (4) lobes of the cerebral cortex?

Parietal, Frontal, Occipital, Temporal

52

What happens in the parietal lobe?

Somatosensory and visual inputs

Spatial awareness

53

What happens in the frontal lobe?

Moto function

conscious thought

Impulse control

Short-term memory

54

What happens in the occipital lobe?

Vision and color recognition

55

What happens in the temproal lobe?

Language

Hearing

Some types of memory

56

What disease affects the basal nuclei?

Parkinsons disease

57

What system. is primarily involved in formation and expression of emotions?

Limbic system

58

What is meningitis?

Infection of meninges leading to fluid accumulation in subarachnoid space

59

When someone has meningitis, increased pressure effect range from...?

Severe headaches to death

60

What is meningitis caused by?

Several different viruses or bacterial species

61

How can bacterial infections be treated?

With antibiotics

62

What is Alzheimer's Disease the leading worldwide cause of?

Dementia

63

What is dementia?

memory loss and cognitive function

64

What are noticeable changes in someone with AD?

plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

65

(T/F) Genetics play a role in AD and dementia but are not the only cause?

True