Chapter 43: Neuroscience 2 - Evolution, structure, and function
What are the three divisions of the brain?
Hindbrain, Midbrain, Forebrain
What are the two divisions of the hindbrain?
Metencephalon and Myelencephalon
What is the one division of the midbrain?
What are the two divisions of the forebrain?
Telencephalon and Diencephalon
The size of the forebrain and its major subdivision (cerebrum) increases with?
A more complex nervous system
What allows the surface area of the cerebral cortex to increase more rapidly during evolution than size of the skull?
What is the relationship between body size and brain mass?
They are generally proportional
What are the two exceptions of species where the body size and brain mass are not proportional?
Dolphins and humans
What does greater size and folding provide for?
More surface area for greater processing and interpretation of information
How are the CNS and. PNS connected?
Anatomically and functionally
The ____ receives information from the ____.
Which part of the nervous system (CNS or PNS) interprets information and may initiate a response?
Which part of the nervous system (CNS or PNS) carries out responses?
What is white matter?
Myelinated axons grouped together to form tracts
What is Gray matter?
Neuronal cell bodies, dendrites and some unmyelinated axons
What forms the cerebral cortex?
What are the two parts of the spinal cord gray matter?
Dorsal and Ventral horns
What kind of information do dorsal horns hold? Ventral horns?
Dorsal: incoming (afferent)
Ventral: Outgoing (Efferent)
What are the three layers of meninges that the CNS is encased in?
Dura matter: outer thick layer
Arachnoid mater: Numerous connections to inner layer
Pia mater: Inner thin membrane on surface of brain and spinal cord
Where is the cerebrospinal fluid located?
Circulating through the subarachnoid space
What is the function of cerebrospinal fluid?
Absorbs physical shocks
Transports substances to and from cells
What are the two divisions of the PNS?
Somatic nervous systems
Autonomic nervous system
What is the primary function of the somatic nervous system?
Sense external environment and control skeletal muscles
What do sensory neurons receive in the somatic nervous system?
Stimuli (heat, light, odors, chemicals (food), sounds, touch) and transmit to CNS
What do motor neurons control in the Somatic nervous system?
What does the autonomic nervous system regulate?
Homeostasis and organ function
What is the autonomic nervous system predominantly composed of?
Are motor neurons involuntary or voluntary?
Involuntary: usually cannot be consciously controlled
What do sensory neurons detect in the autonomic nervous system?
Internal body conditions
What does the autonomic nervous system control?
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
What does the somatic nervous system control?
Many conscious responses
What are the two subdivision of efferent nerves of the autonomic system?
Sympathetic division and Parasympathetic division
What is the purpose of sympathetic division?
Rapidly prepare body for danger or stress: fight-or-flight response
- Increased heart rate, faster breathing, relaxed airways
What is the purpose of parasympathetic division?
Active during restful periods or after a meal: rest-or-digest response
- Slow heart rate, promote digestion
(T/F) Sympathetic and Parasympathetic division act on the same organs but with opposing actions?
What are the three parts of the human hindbrain?
Cerebellum, Pons, and Medulla Oblongata
What are the two parts of the mid brain?
Tracts and Process sensory inputs
What sensory inputs foes the midbrain process>
Several types, like vision, olfaction, and audition
What is the brainstem?
Comprised of medial oblongata, pons, and midbrain
What do all three parts of the brainstem contain to form the reticular formation?
What is the reticular formation?
Network of nuclei and tracts that send signals to other brain regions
What does the reticular formation maintain, control, and regulate?
Maintain and controls: alertness, consciousness, and sleep
Regulation: respiration and cardiovascular systems
What are the two main divisions of the forebrain?
Cerebrum and Diencephalon
What 2 subdivisions are in the cerebrum?
Cerebral cortex and Limbic system (hippocampus)
What 2 subdivisions are in the diencephalon?
Thalamus and Hypothalamus
What does the pineal gland produce?
What are the two hemispheres of the cerebrum connected by?
The severing of the corpus collosum was used in the past to treat what?
What happens in the left hemisphere?
Understanding language and producing speech
What happens in the right hemisphere?
Nonverbal memories, recognizing faces, and interpreting emotions
What are the (4) lobes of the cerebral cortex?
Parietal, Frontal, Occipital, Temporal
What happens in the parietal lobe?
Somatosensory and visual inputs
What happens in the frontal lobe?
What happens in the occipital lobe?
Vision and color recognition
What happens in the temproal lobe?
Some types of memory
What disease affects the basal nuclei?
What system. is primarily involved in formation and expression of emotions?
What is meningitis?
Infection of meninges leading to fluid accumulation in subarachnoid space
When someone has meningitis, increased pressure effect range from...?
Severe headaches to death
What is meningitis caused by?
Several different viruses or bacterial species
How can bacterial infections be treated?
What is Alzheimer's Disease the leading worldwide cause of?
What is dementia?
memory loss and cognitive function
What are noticeable changes in someone with AD?
plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
(T/F) Genetics play a role in AD and dementia but are not the only cause?