Chapter 7 Cardiovascular System

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1

Function of the Cardiovascular System

The function of the cardiovascular system is to maintain an adequate supply of blood to all the tissues of the body.

2

What system controls the heart rate?

This is accomplished by the rhythmic contractions of the heart. Heart rate is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.

3

myocardium

muscle tissue of the heart

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Pericardium

double-walled sac containing the heart

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Epicardium

membrane that forms the inner most layer of pericardium and the outer surface of the heart

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Endocardium

inner most layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart

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Septum

separates the two aria (atrial septum) separates the two ventricles (ventricular septum

8

Systole

part of heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from chambers to arteries

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Diastole

phase of heartbeat when heart muscles relax and fills the chambers with blood

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myocardial infarction

Heart attack; death of myocardial cells

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Another name for and location of: Left atrioventricular valve (AV)

mitral valve, lies between left atrium and left ventricle

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Another name for and location of: Right atrioventricular valve

tricuspid valve, between the right atrium and right ventricle

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Flow of blood through heart

into inferior and superior vena cava > to right atrium > through tricuspid valve > to right ventricle > through the pulmonary valve > to pulmonary arteries > into lungs > to pulmonary veins > into left atrium > through left mitral valve > into left ventricle > through aortic valve > to aorta > rest of body

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Most common congenital cardiac lesion

left to right shunts

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Atrial Septal Defect

a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers of your heart(atria)

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What does atrial septal defect cause

free communication between the two atria

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What does atrial septal defect result from

lack of closure of the foramen ovule after birth

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How does it appear radiographically

enlargement of the right ventricle and atrium and pulmonary outflow tract

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Ventricular Septal Defect

opening between the left and right ventricles allowing blood to flow back into the right ventricle instead of entering the systemic circulation

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How does ventricular septal defect appear radiographically

enlarged pulmonary trunk

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Cardiomegaly

enlarged heart

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How can you diagnose cardiomegaly from PA chest x-ray

evaluating the heart size with cardiothoracic ratio --- greater than 50% = cardiomegaly

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Tetralogy of Fallot

combination of four congenital abnormalities. The four defects include a ventricular septal defect (VSD), pulmonary valve stenosis, a misplaced aorta and a thickened right ventricular wall (right ventricular hypertrophy

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Most common cause of what

cyanotic congenital heart disease

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Coarctation of the Aorta

narrowing or constriction of the aorta

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Where does Coarctation of the Aorta commonly occur

just beyond the branching of the blood vessels to the head and arm

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Classic sign of Coarctation of the Aorta

hypertension in children

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Coronary Artery Disease

narrowing of the lumen of one or more of the coronary arteries

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Most common cause of Coronary Artery Disease

atherosclerosis – deposition of fatty material on the inner arterial wall

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Predisposing factors for CAD

HYTN – obesity – smoking – high cholesterol diet – lack of exercise

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Congestive Heart Failure

inability of the heart to propel blood at the rate and volume sufficient to provide an adequate supply to the tissues

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Congestive Heart Failure causes

intrinsic cardiac abnormality – HTN – obstructive process increasing resistance to blood flow

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Pulmonary Edema

abnormal accumulation of fluid in the extravascular pulmonary tissue

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Most common cause of Pulmonary Edema

elevation of pulmonary venous pressure

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Other causes of Pulmonary Edema

left sided heart failure – lymphatic blockage - more

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Hypertension

high blood pressure

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Leading cause of Hypertension

strokes & CHF

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Above what systolic/diastolic is one considered hypertensive

140/90

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Aneurysm

localized dilation of an artery that most commonly involves the aorta

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Saccular Aneurysm

involves one side of the arterial wall

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Fusiform

aneurysm is bulging of the entire circumference of the vessel wall

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Traumatic Aortic Rupture

potentially fatal complication of closed chest trauma

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Aortic Dissection

potentially life-threatening condition in which disruption of the intima permits blood to enter the wall of the aorta and separate its layers

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Atherosclerosis

thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arteria wall

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Thrombus

intravascular clot

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Embolism

thrombus that becomes detached and enters bloodstream

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Valvular Disease

is characterized by damage to or a defect in one of the four heart valves: the mitral, aortic, tricuspid or pulmonary

48

Rheumatic Heart Disease

autoimmune disease that results from a reaction of the patients antibodies against antigens from a previous streptococcal infection

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What does Rheumatic Heart Disease damage

Heart valves - mitral and aortic

50

Mitral Stenosis

narrowing of the mitral valve opening

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Complication of Mitral Stenosis

rheumatic disease

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Results from Mitral Stenosis

thickening of the valve by fibrous tissue, calcific deposits, or both

53

Aortic Stenosis

Narrowing of the valve in the large blood vessel branching off the heart (aorta).

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causes of aortic stenosis

rheumatic heart disease

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Aortic Insufficiency

A condition in which a heart valve doesn't properly close.

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Aortic Insufficiency causes

rheumatic heart disease – syphilis – infective endocarditis – dissecting aneurysm – marfans syndrome

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Pericardial Effusion

accumulation of fluid within the pericardial space surrounding the heart

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Results from Pericardial Effusion

bacteria – viruses – neoplastic involvement – idiopathic pericardial effusion

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Deep Venous Thrombosis

A blood clot in a deep vein, usually in the legs.

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Primarily involves Deep Venous Thrombosis

lower extremities

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DVT is major source of potentially fatal what?

pulmonary embolism

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Varicose Veins

dilated, elongated, and tortuous vessels that most commonly involve the superficial veins of the leg just under the skin

63

Best non-invasive testing to diagnose

color flow Doppler ultrasound