Key words chapter 44

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1

afterload

resistance/pressure against which the heart has to beat

2

cardiac output

volume of blood being pumped by the heart

3

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart, commonly seen with chronic hypertension, valvular disease, and heart failure

4

cardiomyopathy

a disease of the heart muscle that leads to a weakened heart and can eventually lead to complete heart muscle failure and death

5

chronotropic

describes an agent that can change the heart rate

6

dyspnea

discomfort with respirations, often with a feeling of anxiety and inability to breathe, seen with left-sided heart failure

7

heart failure (HF)

a condition in which the heart muscle has less ability to adequately pump blood around the cardiovascular system, leading to a backup or congestion of blood in the system

8

hemoptysis

blood-tinged sputum seen in left-sided heart failure when blood backs up into the lungs and fluid leaks out into the lung tissue

9

nocturia

getting up to void at night, reflecting increased renal perfusion with fluid shifts in the supine position when a person has gravity-dependent edema related to heart failure; other medical conditions, including urinary tract infection, increase the need to get up and void

10

orthopnea

difficulty breathing when lying down, often referred to by the number of pillows required to allow a person to breathe comfortably

11

positive inotropic

describes an agent that causes an increased force of muscle contraction

12

preload

amount of blood that is brought back to the heart to be pumped throughout the body; this blood exerts pressure on the heart ventricles

13

pulmonary edema

severe left-sided heart failure with backup of blood into the lungs, leading to loss of fluid into the lung tissue

14

tachypnea

rapid and shallow respirations seen with left-sided heart failure