obtaining and processing food

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Campbell Biology
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1

A large percentage of herbivores have

mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter, which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. This flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria.

2

An herbivore

is an animal or insect that only eats vegetation, such as grasses, fruits, leaves, vegetables, roots and bulbs. ........ only eat things that need photosynthesis to live. This excludes insects, spiders, fish and other animals.

3

examples of herbivores

  • Cow
  • Goat
  • Horses
  • Deer
  • Rhinoceros
  • Wildebeest
  • Sheep
  • Iguana
  • Rabbit
  • Panda
  • Koala
4

Examples of Carnivores:

  • Lions and tigers.
  • Praying mantis.
  • Spiders.
  • Venus fly-trap.
  • Eagles.
  • Owls.
  • Many species of beetles.
  • Sharks.
5

A carnivore

is an organism that mostly eats meat, or the flesh of animals. Sometimes carnivores are called predators.

6

omnivore

an animal which is able to consume both plants (like a herbivore) and meat (like a carnivore)

7

Herbivores can be further classified into

frugivores (fruit-eaters), granivores (seed eaters), nectivores (nectar feeders), and folivores (leaf eaters).

8

Examples of omnivores:

pigs, badgers, bears, coatis, civets, hedgehogs, opossums, skunks, sloths, squirrels, raccoons, chipmunks, mice, and rats, humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans

9

suspension feeders

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

10

Examples of suspension feeders

clams, krill, sponges, baleen whales, and many fish.

11

4 types of feeders

  • filter
  • bulk
  • fluid
  • substrate
12

bulk feeders.

ingest large pieces of food.

13

fluid feeders

suck nutrient-rich fluids from a living host.

14

substrate feeders.

substrate feeders. live in or on their food source and eat their way through it.

15

examples of substrate feeders

caterpillar, the larva of a moth,fly larvae

16

examples of bulk feeders

Most animals, including humans, are ........., which eat relatively large pieces of food. Their adaptations include tentacles, pincers, claws, poisonous fangs, jaws, and teeth that kill their prey or tear off pieces of meat or vegetation.

17

examples of fluid feeders

spiders, hummingbirds, aphids, ticks, fleas, vampire bats, flies, leeches and mosquitoes.

18

food processing occurs in 4 stages

ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination

19

ingestion

the process of taking food, drink, or another substance into the body by swallowing or absorbing it.

20

2 phases of digestion

mechanical and chemical

21

Digestion

is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the blood stream.

22

Mechanical digestion

begins in the mouth by the physical act of mastication (chewing). The specialized teeth break down the food as it is cut by the incisors, torn by the cuspids and ground by the molars.

23

Chemical digestion

involves breaking down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used by the cells. ............... begins in the mouth when food mixes with saliva. Saliva contains an enzyme (amylase) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.

24

proteins are digested into

amino acids

25

disaccharides are digested into

monosaccharides

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nucleic acids are digested into

nucleotides

27

lipids are digested into

glycerol and fatty acids

28

Absorption

Of Digested Foods, is the process by which the products of digestion are absorbed by the blood to be supplied to the rest of the body. During ........., the digested products are transported into the blood or lymph through the mucous membrane.

29

Elimination.

The final step in digestion is the ............. of undigested food content and waste products. After food passes through the small intestine, the undigested food material enters the colon, where most of the water is reabsorbed.

30

The gastrovascular cavity

is a structure found in primitive animal phyla. It is responsible for both the digestion of food and the transport of nutrients throughout the body. The cavity has only one opening to the environment. Food goes in and waste comes out that same opening, making it a two-way digestive tract., the Cnidaria (including jellyfish and corals) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

31

the alimentary canal

is a muscular tube which extends from the mouth to the anus. The parts of the human digestive system include – mouth, oral cavity, teeth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.

32

earthworm alimentary canal consists of

a mouth, pharynx , esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestine,anus.

33

The alimentary canal of grasshopper consists of three principal regions:

foregut, midgut and hindgut.

34

The organs of the digestive tract of the bird include

the beak, mouth, salivary glands, tongue (but not teeth), pharynx, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestines, ceca, rectum, and cloaca

35

Ruminants

are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. ... The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called rumination.

36

The cow's digestive tract consists of

Mouth
Esophagus
A four-compartment stomach, which includes
The rumen (paunch)
The reticulum (“honeycomb”)
The omasum (“manyplies”)
The abomasum (“true stomach”)
Small intestine
Large intestine
anus

37

examples of ruminants

Cattle, sheep, goats, deer, giraffes, antelopes, and camels

38

herbivores may have longer alimentary canals than

carnivores and compartments that house cellulose-digesting microbes

39

food may be digested in

food vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, alimentary canals

40

vacuoles that are used by some ................. to digest food.

Amoeba, paramecium, and protozoa