obtaining and processing food
A large percentage of herbivores have
mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter, which is more difficult to digest than animal prey. This flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria.
is an animal or insect that only eats vegetation, such as grasses, fruits, leaves, vegetables, roots and bulbs. ........ only eat things that need photosynthesis to live. This excludes insects, spiders, fish and other animals.
examples of herbivores
Examples of Carnivores:
- Lions and tigers.
- Praying mantis.
- Venus fly-trap.
- Many species of beetles.
is an organism that mostly eats meat, or the flesh of animals. Sometimes carnivores are called predators.
an animal which is able to consume both plants (like a herbivore) and meat (like a carnivore)
Herbivores can be further classified into
frugivores (fruit-eaters), granivores (seed eaters), nectivores (nectar feeders), and folivores (leaf eaters).
Examples of omnivores:
pigs, badgers, bears, coatis, civets, hedgehogs, opossums, skunks, sloths, squirrels, raccoons, chipmunks, mice, and rats, humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.
Examples of suspension feeders
clams, krill, sponges, baleen whales, and many fish.
4 types of feeders
ingest large pieces of food.
suck nutrient-rich fluids from a living host.
substrate feeders. live in or on their food source and eat their way through it.
examples of substrate feeders
caterpillar, the larva of a moth,fly larvae
examples of bulk feeders
Most animals, including humans, are ........., which eat relatively large pieces of food. Their adaptations include tentacles, pincers, claws, poisonous fangs, jaws, and teeth that kill their prey or tear off pieces of meat or vegetation.
examples of fluid feeders
spiders, hummingbirds, aphids, ticks, fleas, vampire bats, flies, leeches and mosquitoes.
food processing occurs in 4 stages
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
the process of taking food, drink, or another substance into the body by swallowing or absorbing it.
2 phases of digestion
mechanical and chemical
is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma. In certain organisms, these smaller substances are absorbed through the small intestine into the blood stream.
begins in the mouth by the physical act of mastication (chewing). The specialized teeth break down the food as it is cut by the incisors, torn by the cuspids and ground by the molars.
involves breaking down the food into simpler nutrients that can be used by the cells. ............... begins in the mouth when food mixes with saliva. Saliva contains an enzyme (amylase) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
proteins are digested into
disaccharides are digested into
nucleic acids are digested into
lipids are digested into
glycerol and fatty acids
Of Digested Foods, is the process by which the products of digestion are absorbed by the blood to be supplied to the rest of the body. During ........., the digested products are transported into the blood or lymph through the mucous membrane.
The final step in digestion is the ............. of undigested food content and waste products. After food passes through the small intestine, the undigested food material enters the colon, where most of the water is reabsorbed.
The gastrovascular cavity
is a structure found in primitive animal phyla. It is responsible for both the digestion of food and the transport of nutrients throughout the body. The cavity has only one opening to the environment. Food goes in and waste comes out that same opening, making it a two-way digestive tract., the Cnidaria (including jellyfish and corals) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
the alimentary canal
is a muscular tube which extends from the mouth to the anus. The parts of the human digestive system include – mouth, oral cavity, teeth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.
earthworm alimentary canal consists of
a mouth, pharynx , esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestine,anus.
The alimentary canal of grasshopper consists of three principal regions:
foregut, midgut and hindgut.
The organs of the digestive tract of the bird include
the beak, mouth, salivary glands, tongue (but not teeth), pharynx, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, intestines, ceca, rectum, and cloaca
are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. ... The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called rumination.
The cow's digestive tract consists of
A four-compartment stomach, which includes
The rumen (paunch)
The reticulum (“honeycomb”)
The omasum (“manyplies”)
The abomasum (“true stomach”)
examples of ruminants
Cattle, sheep, goats, deer, giraffes, antelopes, and camels
herbivores may have longer alimentary canals than
carnivores and compartments that house cellulose-digesting microbes
food may be digested in
food vacuoles, gastrovascular cavities, alimentary canals
vacuoles that are used by some ................. to digest food.
Amoeba, paramecium, and protozoa