Human Growth and Development Test 2 Study Guide Review

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What are the basic senses at birth?

For newborns all senses are in function at birth such as sight, touch, taste, smelling and hearing.


What is the Cephalocaudal and Proximodistal growth principles?



Define Motor Skills:

The learned ability to move some part of the body and actions religion from large leap to a flicker of the eyelid.


Define Gross Motor Skills:

Physical abilities involved in large body movements such as walking and jumping.


Define Fine Motor Skills:

Physical activities involving small body movements especially after hand and fingers such as drawing of picking up a coin.


Factors that contribute to the development of motor skills?

Motor skills begin with reflexes, it is a skill that is practiced and encouraged


Defined SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)

A situation in which seemingly healthy infants usually between two and six months old suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while Asleep.


Explain breast milk and colostrum?

Colostrum, is a thick high calorie fluid secreted by the mothers breast at birth.


Define Sensorimotor intelligence:

Piaget’s term for the way infants think by using their senses and motor skills during the first period of cognitive development.


Primary Circular Reactions

The first of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, This is one involving the infants on body. The infant senses motion, sucking, noise, and other stimuli and tries to understand them.


Secondary circular reactions

The second of three types of feedback loops in a sensorimotor intelligence, this one involving people and objects. Infants respond to other people to toys and to any other object that they can touch or move.


Tertiary circular reactions

The third of three types of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence, This one involving active exploration and experimentation. Infants explore a range of new activities varying their responses and a way of learning about the world.


Define visual cliff

An experimental apparatus that gives the illusion of sudden drop off between one Horizon surface and another.


An example of infant sound preferences?

A new born would prefer to listen to a certain language that was spoken by mom when they were in the womb.


Define Child directed speech

The high pitch simplified and repetitive way adult speak to infants and children (also called baby talk or motherese)


Define self-awareness:

A person realization that he or she is distinct individual who is body mind and action I separate from those of other people.


Mirror and rouge experiment:

A mother wiped a bit of rouge on the noses of their children and placed them in front of a mirror. In other words, they understand that the reflection in the mirror is more than a familiar face–it is their own face.



Inborn differences between one person and I’m not there in emotions activities and self-regulation. it is measured by the persons typical response to the environment.(Tone, duration, and intensity is intertwined)



A coordinated rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant.


Strange situation task

To observe attachment in children, that is relationships between a caregiver and child.


Define Attachment:

And affection or tie that an infant farms with a caregiver a tie that binds them together in space and endures overtime.


Define Secure attachment:

A relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver.


Define insecure avoidant attachment:

A pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with caregiver as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver present, departure, or return.


Define insecure resistant/ambivalent attachment:

A pattern of attachment in which an infant anxiety and uncertainty or evident as when the infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and six contact reunion.


Define Disorganized attachment:

A type of attachment that is marked by an infants inconsistent reactions to the caregivers departure and return.


A child’s appetite in early childhood:

It may decrease.


Autism spectrum disorder and development of the corpus Colossum:

(It is a long thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemisphere of the brain and allows communication between them.)

What happens when the corpus Colossum fails to grow efficiently it is one of the causes of autism.


Define Lateralization:

Literally sidedness referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa. (The entire human body is lateralized.)


Define Child abuse:

Deliberate action that is harmful to a child physical emotional or sexual well-being.


Define Child maltreatment:

Intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age.


Substantiated maltreatment:

Harm or engagement that has been reported investigated and verified.


Reported maltreatment

Harm or engagement about which someone has notified the authorities.


Define Centration:

A characteristics of preoperational thought in which a young child focus on an idea excluding all others.


Define Egocentrism:

Piaget term for children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective.


Define animism:

The believe that natural objects and phenomena are a life moving around and having sensation and abilities that a human like.


Define Conservation:

The principle that the amount of substance remain the same even when it’s appearance changes.


Define Vygotsky theory:

Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theory postulates that social interaction is fundamental to cognitive development.


Define Zone of proximal development:

Vygotsky’s term for the skills cognitive as well as physical got a person can exercise only with assistance not yet independently.


Define scaffolding:

Temporary support that is tailored to a learner‘s needs and abilities and in helping learner master the next task in a different learning process.


What is the theory of mind?

A persons theory of what other people might be thinking.


Define Over-regularization:

is a part of the language-learning process in which children extend regular grammatical patterns to irregular words, such as the use of "goed " for "went", or "tooths" for "teeth".


Define overextension:

occurs when a categorical term (a word used to describe a group of things) is used in language to represent more categories than it actually does.


Defined under extension:

occurs when a categorical term (a word used to describe a group of things) is used in language improperly by only using it for one object instead of all objects that belong in that category.


Define emotional regulation:

The ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.


What are Imaginary friends?

Make-believe friends who exist only in a child’s imagination increasingly common from age 3 to 7. They combat and loneliness and eight emotional regulation.


What is the importance of play in early childhood?

Play allows children to use their creativity while developing their imagination, dexterity, and physical, cognitive, and emotional strength. Play is important to healthy brain development. It is through play that children at a very early age engage and interact in the world around them.


What are types of plays in early childhood?

Solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative, corporative.


Define instrumental aggression:

Behavior that hurts someone else because the aggressor was to get or keep a position or a privilege.


Define reactive aggression:

A impulsive retaliation for another persons intentional or accidental action verbal or physical.


Define Relational aggression:

Non-physical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at Harming the social connection between the victim and other people.


Define bullying aggression:

Unprovoked, repeating physical or verbal attacks, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.


Define authoritarian parenting:

An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment for misconduct, and little communication from child to parent


Define permissive parenting:

An approach to travel in that is characterized by high nurturance of communication But a little discipline, guidance, or control. (Also called indulgent Parenting.)


Define Authoritative Parenting:

An approach to a child rearing in which the parent set limits but listen to the child and are flexible.


Define Neglectful/uninvolved parenting:

An approach to child rearing in which the parent or indifferent towards their children and unaware of what is going on in their children’s lives.


Define asthma:

A chronic disease of the respiratory system in which Inflammation narrows the airway from the nose and mouth to the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing.


Define aptitude:

The potential to master a specific skill or to learn a certain body of knowledge.


Define Achievement test:

And measure of mastery of proficiency in reading, mathematics, writing science, or some other subject.