bio 240 Chapter 5 Learnsmart continued

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1

Partially hydrogenated oils are no longer

considered safe for the use of human foods

2

Chylomicron Triglyceride

Carries dietary fat from the small intestine to cells

3

VLDL Triglyceride

Carries lipids made and taken up by the liver to cells

4

LDL Cholesterol

Carries cholesterol made by the liver and from other sources to cells

5

HDL Protein

Contributes to cholesterol removal from cells and, in turn, excretion of it from the body

6

review of digestion

1. large fat droplets enter the small intestine after a meal

2.bile acids and lecithin emulsify large fat droplets into smaller particles

3. Lipase breaks down triglyceride into fatty acids , glycerol and monoglyceride

4. Monoglycerides and fatty acids are absorbed into the small intestinal cells and then reformed into triglycerides

5. short and medium chain fatty acids enter the bloodstream ( cardiovascular system)

6.triglyceride combine with cholesterol, protein and phospholipids to form chylomicrons which enter the lymphatic system

7

1. Some lipase is released by the salivary glands into the stomach

2. Salivary lipase and gastric lipase begin digesting short chained fatty acids into the stomach

3. Bile emulsifies the fat

4. pancreatic lipase digest long chain fatty acids and triglycerides

5 triglycerides are broken down and absorbed in the small intestine

5 steps of fat digestion

8

The majority of fatty acids in body and in foods are __________ chain fatty acids.

long

9

the use of fatty acids in the form of triglycerides aka Triglycerides are used for energy storage, insulation, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins.

energy storage, insulation, and transportation of fat-soluble vitamins.

10

Cis fatty acid

hydrogen is on the same side of the carbon- carbon double bond

11

trans fatty acid

hydrogen is found on the opposite side of the carbon- carbon double bond

12

CLA or natural trans fat

decrease the risk of heart disease cancer and obesity

13

omega 6 fatty acid

are called unsaturated fatty acids

the first carbon double bond is on the 6th carbon bond of the methyl end of the carbon chain

14

omega 3 fatty acid is

unsaturated

15

essential fatty acids

cannot be synthesized in the body.

16

non essential fatty acids

can be synthesized in the body and do not need to be supplied by the diet.

17

Regular consumption of fatty fish provides dha and epa which can be slowly synthesized in the body as long as the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid is present in adequate quantities.

dha =decohexaeonic acid

EPa= eicosapentaeonic acid

18

lipids in foods and in the body are mostly forms of

triglycerides

19

diglyceride

consist of two fatty acids bonded to a glycerol backbone

it is the breakdown product of a triglyceride.

20

it is one of the products of digestion of triglycerides.

it consist of one fatty acid bonded to a glycerol backbone

monoglyceride

21

what is the most important function of a phospholipid molecule?

helps form cell membrane

22

lecithin

is a phospholipid and a major part of the cell membrane.

23

What is true about sterols

cholesterol is a common example

they contain a multi- ring structure

they can be produced by the body

24

function of cholesterol

synethesis

Hormones

bile acids

and incorporation of cell structures

25

avocados are classifies as

berries

26

Saturated fatty acids consist of

carbon- carbon single bonds

27

dietary fats consist of a complex mixture of several different types of fatty acids

true

28

_________unsaturated fatty acids are similar to saturated fatty acids with regard to shape and function

trans

29

To protect cardio health, major health authorities recommend limiting intakes of

saturated and trans fat

30

How are fatty acids distinguished ?

number of carbon-carbon double bonds along the skeleton

position of carbon-carbon bonds along the skeleton

length of carbon skeleton

31

systolic b p

pressure associated with pumping blood from the heart

32

diastolic bp

pressure in arterial b vessels when the heart is between beats

33

function of hdl cholesterol in the bloodstream

pick up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources

donate cholesterol to other lipoprotein for transport back to the liver for excretion