chapter 5 learnsmart bio 240
Aside from palm oil and coconut oil, most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, ranging from 73% to 94% of total fat. The major sources of monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet are canola oil, olive oil, and peanut oil. Corn, cottonseed, sunflower, soybean, and safflower oils contain mostly polyunsaturated fatty acids (54% to 77%).
Animal fats are the chief contributors of saturated fatty acids to the North American diet. About 40% to 60% of total fat in dairy and meat products is in the form of saturated fatty acids. Palm oil and coconut oil are two plant oils that are rich sources of saturated fatty acids.
Fats and oils contain mixtures of various fatty acids , What foods are high in saturated fatty acids?
fatty fish provide eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA) which are two ______ which are important for brain and health
These two omega-3 fatty acids are naturally found in fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, sardines, anchovies, striped bass, catfish, herring, mackerel, trout, and halibut.
EPA and DHA
Margarine is the leading source of cholesterol in American diets ?
Cholesterol is found only in animal foods (Table 5-1). One large egg yolk contains about 185 milligrams of cholesterol. Eggs, meats, and whole milk are our main dietary sources of cholesterol.
Some of the positive attributes of fat in the diet ?
Fat imparts a creamy texture to foods
Fat enhances flavor
Why do reduced fat foods contain the same, or similar amount of calories as their reference foods
When fat is removed sugar is usually added to maintain flavor and texture resulting in the similar energy density
A recipe may have to be adjusted when substituting reduced fat margarine for regular margarine because of the extra _________ in the reduced fat margarine.
occurs when the double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids in food products are broken down by ultraviolet light or oxygen.
are more susceptible to rancidity because they contain many carbon-carbon double bonds.
produces trans fats
High dietary consumption of trans fatty acids __________ cardiovascular disease?
needs to be increased by choosing fewer saturated and trans fatty acids
Need not be altered to maintain a healthy diet
sugar and salts are added
to compensate for the lost of taste and texture when fats are removed.
americans need to improve the fat quality in their diet
is a generic term that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols.
One bowl of tortilla soup provides 5 grams of fat which actually equals how many kcalories
phospholipid are essential parts of
What do all lipids have in common?
Do not readily dissolve in water
Give an example of a fatty acid, phospholipid and sterol?
Fatty - linoleic acid
Phospholipids do not contain fatty acids within their molecule structure?
Cholesterol _______ be made in the body
Oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids are typically ___________ at room temperature
A molecule with a long chain of carbons bonded together and flanked by hydrogens with an acid group on one end and a methyl group on the other end is called
saturated fatty acid
monounsaturated fatty acid
polyunsaturated fatty acid
sat - no carbon-carbon double bond
one carbon-carbon double bond =mono
two or more carbon-carbon double bond= poly
Remember mono means one
Butter is solid at room temperature because it contains mostly
a tsp of stick margarine has __________ trans fatty acids as a tsp of tub margarine
linoleic acid and alpha linoleic acid are both
essential fatty acids because we must obtain them from foods.
three fatty acids attached to glycerol
chain of carbon flanked by hydrogens
glycerol backbone with fatty acids and at least one phosphorus containing group
multi-ringed compound with a hydroxyl group
components of a phospholipid molecule
glycerol backbone and phosphorus - containing molecule.
Foods that contain partially hydrogenated trans fat
One risk factor for cardiovascular is
less than 40 mg/dl HDL
Risk factor for cardiovascular
High B Cholesterol
Steps of dietary fat absorption
1. glycerol, monoglycerides, and fatty acids are absorbed from the lumen of the small intestines into the small intestinal cells.
2. triglycerides are ressembled within the cells lining the small intestines
3. triglycerides are packed into chylomicrons
4. chylomicrons enter the lymphatic system
What enzyme breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol in the bloodstream
density lipoprotein is considered the "bad" cholesterol
What two food components contribute to raising the cholesterol level in your blood
What are the function of phospholipids in the body?
formation of cell membranes
digestion of fats
absorption and transport of nutrients
triglycerides is used as the primary energy source by musclesl
when the body is at rest
during low- intensity physical activity
The function of fat tissue
protect organs from injury
omega 3 fatty acids is responsible for
reduced triglycerides, reduced blood clotting, reduced pain from rheumatoid arthritis
The acceptable macronutrient distribution range for lipids according to the food and nutrition board.
Having an HDL level above __________ mg/dl and a toltal cholesterol to HDL ratio below _ is especially protective of cardiovascular disease
heart attack warnings include
intense prolonged chest pain or pressure , sometimes radiating to other parts of the upper body
shortness of breath
a cerebrovascular accident is called
What are some components of plaque
white blood cells
Why is LDL considered bad cholesterol?
Buildup of LDL in blood vessels contribute to atherosclerosis, a process that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
If not cleared from the bloodstream, LDL cholesterol builds up in the blood vessels
The leading cause of death in North american adults
How the foods you eat effects the cholesterol in your blood
Eating saturated fats and trans fats raises total cholesterol and particularly LDL
Cholesterol in your diet does not have a big impact on the levels of HDL and LDL in the blood
Cholesterol in foods are not designated as good or bad fats.
Women often have high HDL, affording them some protection against cardiovascular disease until
They smoke or have diabetes
A major function of phospholipids ex Lecithin is to act as an
The enzyme that plays an important role in fat digestion
alpha linolenic acid
omega-3 fatty acid or essential fatty acid
omega -6 fatty acid essential fatty achid
Some of the foods that are examples of cholesterol
nonessential fatty acid
Foods that indicate the presence of fat in foods
Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil