chapter 5 learnsmart bio 240

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1

Aside from palm oil and coconut oil, most plant oils are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, ranging from 73% to 94% of total fat. The major sources of monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet are canola oil, olive oil, and peanut oil. Corn, cottonseed, sunflower, soybean, and safflower oils contain mostly polyunsaturated fatty acids (54% to 77%).

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2

Animal fats are the chief contributors of saturated fatty acids to the North American diet. About 40% to 60% of total fat in dairy and meat products is in the form of saturated fatty acids. Palm oil and coconut oil are two plant oils that are rich sources of saturated fatty acids.

...

3

Fats and oils contain mixtures of various fatty acids , What foods are high in saturated fatty acids?

butter

coconut oil

cheeseburger

4

fatty fish provide eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid ( DHA) which are two ______ which are important for brain and health

omega 3

5

These two omega-3 fatty acids are naturally found in fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, sardines, anchovies, striped bass, catfish, herring, mackerel, trout, and halibut.

EPA and DHA

6

Margarine is the leading source of cholesterol in American diets ?

False

7

Cholesterol is found only in animal foods (Table 5-1). One large egg yolk contains about 185 milligrams of cholesterol. Eggs, meats, and whole milk are our main dietary sources of cholesterol.

...

8

Some of the positive attributes of fat in the diet ?

Fat imparts a creamy texture to foods

Fat enhances flavor

9

Why do reduced fat foods contain the same, or similar amount of calories as their reference foods

When fat is removed sugar is usually added to maintain flavor and texture resulting in the similar energy density

10

A recipe may have to be adjusted when substituting reduced fat margarine for regular margarine because of the extra _________ in the reduced fat margarine.

water

11

Rancidity

occurs when the double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids in food products are broken down by ultraviolet light or oxygen.

12

unsaturated fats

are more susceptible to rancidity because they contain many carbon-carbon double bonds.

13

hydrogenation process

produces trans fats

14

High dietary consumption of trans fatty acids __________ cardiovascular disease?

increase

15

Quality

needs to be increased by choosing fewer saturated and trans fatty acids

16

quantity

Need not be altered to maintain a healthy diet

17

sugar and salts are added

to compensate for the lost of taste and texture when fats are removed.

18

americans need to improve the fat quality in their diet

true

19

is a generic term that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols.

Lipid

20

One bowl of tortilla soup provides 5 grams of fat which actually equals how many kcalories

45

21

phospholipid are essential parts of

every cell

22

What do all lipids have in common?

Do not readily dissolve in water

23

Give an example of a fatty acid, phospholipid and sterol?

Fatty - linoleic acid

sterol- cholesterol

Phospholipid -lecithin

24

Phospholipids do not contain fatty acids within their molecule structure?

false

25

Cholesterol _______ be made in the body

can

26

Oils rich in unsaturated fatty acids are typically ___________ at room temperature

liquid

27

A molecule with a long chain of carbons bonded together and flanked by hydrogens with an acid group on one end and a methyl group on the other end is called

fatty acid

28

saturated fatty acid

monounsaturated fatty acid

polyunsaturated fatty acid

sat - no carbon-carbon double bond

one carbon-carbon double bond =mono

two or more carbon-carbon double bond= poly

Remember mono means one

29

Butter is solid at room temperature because it contains mostly

saturated

30

a tsp of stick margarine has __________ trans fatty acids as a tsp of tub margarine

more

31

linoleic acid and alpha linoleic acid are both

essential fatty acids because we must obtain them from foods.

32

Triglyceride is

three fatty acids attached to glycerol

33

fatty acid

chain of carbon flanked by hydrogens

34

phospholipid

glycerol backbone with fatty acids and at least one phosphorus containing group

35

sterol

multi-ringed compound with a hydroxyl group

36

components of a phospholipid molecule

glycerol backbone and phosphorus - containing molecule.

37

Foods that contain partially hydrogenated trans fat

margarine

shortening

french fries

38

One risk factor for cardiovascular is

less than 40 mg/dl HDL

39

Risk factor for cardiovascular

HIgh BP

High B Cholesterol

smoking

family history

40

Steps of dietary fat absorption

1. glycerol, monoglycerides, and fatty acids are absorbed from the lumen of the small intestines into the small intestinal cells.

2. triglycerides are ressembled within the cells lining the small intestines

3. triglycerides are packed into chylomicrons

4. chylomicrons enter the lymphatic system

41

What enzyme breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol in the bloodstream

lipoprotein lipase

42

low

density lipoprotein is considered the "bad" cholesterol

43

What two food components contribute to raising the cholesterol level in your blood

trans fat

saturated fat

44

What are the function of phospholipids in the body?

formation of cell membranes

digestion of fats

absorption and transport of nutrients

45

triglycerides is used as the primary energy source by musclesl

when the body is at rest

during low- intensity physical activity

46

The function of fat tissue

protect organs from injury

47

omega 3 fatty acids is responsible for

reduced triglycerides, reduced blood clotting, reduced pain from rheumatoid arthritis

48

25-35%

The acceptable macronutrient distribution range for lipids according to the food and nutrition board.

49

Having an HDL level above __________ mg/dl and a toltal cholesterol to HDL ratio below _ is especially protective of cardiovascular disease

60, 3.5:1

50

heart attack warnings include

intense prolonged chest pain or pressure , sometimes radiating to other parts of the upper body

irregular heartbeat

shortness of breath

51

a cerebrovascular accident is called

stroke

52

What are some components of plaque

white blood cells

cholesterol

vitamins

53

Why is LDL considered bad cholesterol?

Buildup of LDL in blood vessels contribute to atherosclerosis, a process that increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

If not cleared from the bloodstream, LDL cholesterol builds up in the blood vessels

54

The leading cause of death in North american adults

Cardiovascular disease

55

How the foods you eat effects the cholesterol in your blood

Eating saturated fats and trans fats raises total cholesterol and particularly LDL

Cholesterol in your diet does not have a big impact on the levels of HDL and LDL in the blood

Cholesterol in foods are not designated as good or bad fats.

56

Women often have high HDL, affording them some protection against cardiovascular disease until

They smoke or have diabetes

menopause

57

A major function of phospholipids ex Lecithin is to act as an

emulsifier

58

The enzyme that plays an important role in fat digestion

lipase

59

alpha linolenic acid

omega-3 fatty acid or essential fatty acid

60

linoleic acid

omega -6 fatty acid essential fatty achid

61

Some of the foods that are examples of cholesterol

ice cream

chicken

eggs

62

omega 9

nonessential fatty acid

63

Foods that indicate the presence of fat in foods

lard

egg yolk

shortening

cream

Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil