micro exam 2 (ch.10) Flashcards


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1

an antimicrobial that is effective against a limited array of microbial types is called a _____ spectrum drug

narrow spectrum

2

what is drug resistance

when microbes begin to tolerate an antimicrobial agent at a level which would normally be inhibitory

3

an enzyme secreted by certain bacteria that cleaves the beta-lactam ring of penicillin and cephalosporin and thus provides for resistance against the antibiotic

  • penicillinase
  • beta-lactamase
4

laboratory-modified drug that originated and isolated from a natural source

semisynthetic drug

5

antimicrobial drug that is chemically synthesized in the lab (produced entirely by chemical reactions)

synthetic drug

6

particular microorganism produces a substance that kills another microorganism in its environment

antagonism

7

minimum inhibitory concentration

highest dilution of a drug where it visibly inhibits growth of a particular microorganism

8

lowest concentration of a drug that visibly inhibits growth

minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

9

VRSA

VRA

CDIFF

vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus- concerning

vancomycin-resistant enterococcus- serious

clostridium difficile- urgent

10

all inclusive term for any drug used to fight an infection, regardless of its origin

antimicrobial

11

under which circumstance might a microbe be intrinsically resistant to an antibiotic

  • when the microbe produces the antibiotic
  • when the microbe does not have the molecular target of the antibiotic
12

bacteria that slow or stop their metabolism so that they cannot be harmed by an antibiotic are

persisters

13

when antibiotic resistance is a fixed trait of a microbe it is termed

intrinsic resistance

14

small RNA that binds a genetic sequence to silence a gene. can provide temporary resistance to the antibiotic

interfering RNA

15

R factor is a type of ___ that confers antibiotic resistance

plasmid

16

process of environment placing pressure on organisms to adapt and survive changing conditions

natural selection

17

post antibiotic era

a situation in which some infections will be untreatable to others

18

C. diff is an urgent hazard because

it causes disease when patients have been treated with multiple antibiotics

19

CRISPR has been used to treat antibiotic resistant infections by directing specific gene cuts to

the antibiotic resistance genes

20

preparations of live microbes used as a preventative or therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens

probiotics

21

nutrients used to stimulate the growth of favorable biota in the intestine

prebiotics

22

enzyme that hydrolyzes penicillin and is found in penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria

penicillinase

23

use of chemotheraputic drugs to control infection and diseases caused by many types of microorganisms

antimicrobial chemotherapy

24

use of a drug to prevent imminent infection of a person at risk

prophylaxis

25

genus of fungi that is NOT a major source of antibiotics

aspergillus

26

essential to perform an antimicrobial susceptibility test for all infectious agents

false

27

antimicrobial (substance) produced by natural metabolic processes of some microorganisms that can inhibit or kill other microorganisms (term used for drugs targeting bacteria and not other types of microbes)

antibiotic

28

advantage of E test over kirby-bauer testing is that E test

provides the MIC for the drug

29

drugs that work for viral infections will target the virus in which of the following ways

  1. do not allow the virus to reproduce inside the cell
  2. prevents the assembly of new virus particles
  3. prevents entry if the virus into host cells
30

three major modes of activation of antiviral drugs

  1. barring virus penetration into host cells
  2. blocking virus transcription and translation
  3. preventing virus maturation
31

all inclusive term for any drug used tonight an infection, regardless of its origin type

antimicrobial

32

drugs that are effective against fungi have a strong possibility of being toxic to humans because both organisms are eukaryotes

true

33

primary sites for action of antimicrobial drugs in bacteria

  • cell wall
  • ribosomes
  • nucleic acids
  • cell membrane
34

drug resistance arises when an organism

  • spontaneous mutation occurs in the organisms DNA code
  • gains the genetic information for resistance from another organisms (acquisition of new genes)
35

normal ___ are beneficial or harmless resident bacteria commonly found on and/or in the human body

biota

36

drug reaction that occurs because the drug stimulates the immune system

allergy

37

when an infection is caused by an over-growth of a drug resistant microorganism during antimicrobial therapy

superinfection

38

when an allergic reaction to antigen develops rapidly and can result in shock and death this is referred to as

anaphylaxis

39

drug that is isolated from natural sources and then modified in the lab

semisynthetic

40

mechanisms of drug resistance

  1. new enzymes are synthesized, inactivating the drug (acquisition of new genes)
  2. permeability into bacteria is decreased (mutation)
  3. drug is eliminated (acquisition of new genes)
  4. binding sites are decreased (mutation OR acquisition of new genes)
  5. metabolic pathway is shut down (mutation)
41

epigenetic event

reversible mechanism that allows fungi to express certain genes targeted by antibiotics AFTER the antibiotics are no longer present

42

epimutation

genes are silenced and target of antibiotic is not manufactured by the fungus making it TEMPORARILY resistant to that drug

43

mechanisms of drug action

  1. inhibition of cell wall synthesis
  2. inhibition of nucleic acid (RNA and DNA) structure and function
  3. inhibition of protein synthesis
  4. interference with cytoplasmic membrane structure or function
  5. inhibition of folic acid synthesis
44

3 factors needed before antimicrobial therapy can begin

  1. identity of microorganism causing infection
  2. degree of microorganisms susceptibility to various drugs
  3. overall medical condition of patient
45

categories of major drug side effects

  • toxic damage to tissue
  • allergic reactions
  • normal flora disruption
46

horizontal gene transfers occur through

  • conjugation
  • transformation
  • transduction
47

antimicrobial drug damage

can be permanent or reversible

48

drug resistance genes found on ____ usually result from spontaneous random mutation

bacterial chromosome