micro exam 2 (ch.5) Flashcards


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1

used to describe viral RNA genome that CANNOT be immediately translated into protein

negative sense

2

single stranded RNA genomes that are ready for immediate translation into proteins are _____ RNA

positive-sense

3

process that occurs during or after penetration when viruses lose their capsid *or envelope if they have one

uncoating

4

phage that is a bacteriophage that incorporates itself into the host genome as a lysogenic prophage

temperate phage

5

viruses that can infect only certain tissues are described as having a tissue specificity OR

tropism

6

three main criteria used to classify viruses

  1. genetic makeup
  2. chemical composition
  3. structure
7

describes physical rupture of cell

lysis

8

when cells are infected but cells are not immediately lysed

persistent infection

9

when individual viral gees exist on separate pieces of genomic RNA, the genome is_____

segmented

10

multinucleated mass of cells caused by viral infection

syncytium

11

total nucleic acid content of a virus can be referred to as

viral genome

12

similarities of temperate and lytic phages

  • adsorption
  • penetration
  • assembly
  • release
  • biosynthesis of viral components
13

complete set of viruses that are associated with the human body

human virome

14

methods that a virus can use to gain entry into an animal cell

  • fusion of the viral envelope and the cell membrane
  • engulfment/phagocytosis of the virus
15

persistence of bacteriophage DNA within a host chromosome

lysogeny

16

bacterium acquires a new trait from its temperate phage

lysogenic conversion

17

noncellular infectious agent that depends on other viruses for replication

satellite virus

18

infectious agent made up of only protein and associated with spongiform encephalopathies

prion

19

3 purposes of viral cultivation

  1. identify viruses in clinical specimens
  2. study the effects on host cells
  3. prepare vaccines
20

disease characterized b brain tissue pathology due to prions

spongiform encephalopathy

21

virus that synthesizes DNA directly from RNA using reverse transcripticase

retrovirus

22

describes the phage DNA that is latently incorporated into the bacterial host genome

prophage

23

type of virus that parasitizes other viruses infecting the same host cell

virophage

24

two in vivo methods for viral cultivation

  1. inoculating mice with viruses
  2. inoculating chicken eggs with viruses
25

enzyme capable of taking an RNA genome and generating a DNA copy is called

reverse transcriptase

26

process in which a virus is engulfed by a cell and enclosed in a vacuole or vesicle

endocytosis

27

treating viral diseases....

  • antibiotics are not effective against viruses
  • most vaccines target viral diseases
28

clear area where virus-infected monolayers of cells have been disrupted or destroyed

plaque

29

infectious aged that lacks a capsid and only consists of a strand of RNA

viroid

30

an animal virus which has intergrated its DNA into the DNA of its host cell

provirus

31

mass of viruses or damaged organelles caused by viral infection of a cell

inclusion body

32

phage type that can incorporate itself into the host genome as a lysogenic prophage

temperate phage

33

ways that enveloped animal viruses are released from the host cell

  1. bud off the cell membrane
  2. release from the endoplasmic reticulum
34

viral capsid proteins are synthesized during the ___ stage of the synthesis phase of the viral life cycle

late phase

35

viruses can cause cancer by

  • introducing oncogenes to a host cell
  • causing a loss of growth regulation
36

cultured cells grow in the form of ___, a single confluent sheet of cells that supports viral multiplication

monolayer

37

capsomeres are composed of

proteins

38

most host cell receptors that viruses attach to are ___ that cells use in normal function

glycoproteins

39

two noncellular infectious agents that are medically important are

  1. prions
  2. viroids
40

cellular organisms that viruses can infect

  1. bacteria
  2. fungi
  3. animals
  4. protozoa
  5. plants
41

challenging for scientists to design antiviral drugs because

viruses use host features for their life cycle so many drugs would affect the host cells

42

helical capsid

have rod-shaped capsomers

43

icosahedral capsid

arranged as a multifaceted polygon

44

virus types released from host cells by lysis

  1. naked
  2. complex
45

exocytosis or___ of enveloped viruses occurs from the host cell membrane during the release stage of viral multiplication

budding

46

virus that specifically infects bacteria

bacteriophage

47

phage DNA that is latently incorporated into the bacterial host genome is called

prophage

48

segmented RNA genome

individual genes exist on separate pieces of RNA

49

identify all the types of nucleic acid genomes which have been discovered carried by various bacteriophages

  • ssDNA
  • ssRNA
  • dsDNA
50

infectious agent made up of only protein

prion

51

viruses were discovered by

using a filter

52

viruses CANNOT

  • replicate outside of a cell
  • consume food
53

clear area where a virus-infected cell lysed and infected all the neighboring cells and lysed those too

plaque

54

pathways that could produce proteins used by viruses

  • host DNA---->mRNA---->proteins used by viruses
  • viral positive-ssRNA---->proteins used by viruses
55

persistence of bacteriophage DNA within a host chromosome

lysogeny

56

most human viral infections are

self limiting

57

when bacteriophages infect pathogenic bacteria and result in a new pathogenic trait it is called

lysogenic conversion

58

cell culture is the same as

tissue culture

59

single confluent sheet of cells that support viral multiplication and grow cultured cells

monolayer

60

virus types released from host cells by lysis

  • naked
  • complex
61

integrated its DNA into the DNA of its host cell

provirus

62

T-even bacteriophage nucleic acid enters the host cell by

injection

63

capsids of naked helical viruses are

rigid and tight

64

capsids of enveloped helical viruses are

flexible and loose

65

viroids are composed of only

RNA

66

most RNA viruses will assemble the vision within the host cells...

cytoplasm

67

antiviral drugs target

one of the steps in the viral life cycle

68

process of ___ a prophage is activated and enters the lytic cycle

induction

69

in enveloped viruses, viral spike proteins insert into the host cell membrane in order to be incorporated into the new virion

assembly

70

viral DNA polymerase genes are expressed during the ___ of the synthesis phase

early stage

71

most bacteriophages have ____ DNA genomes

double stranded and have dsDNA