History 131 Test 1 Here Goes
The Emancipation Proclamation?
(1863) President Lincoln freed all slaves in southern states
Purpose of Emancipation Proclamation?
does not free slaves unless the north wins the war; changed war from that of unification to emancipation
The 13th Amendment?
(1865) same as year civil war ended, slavery abolished in US; Lincoln was president
attemps to reimpose slavery; can't be on jury/testify in court/own land/certain jobs, etc.
What is the most popular Black Code?
vagrancy law; if you cannot prove to an elected official at any moment and on the spot that you're employed, they have the right of auction you off to a local landowner to work for free
The Freedman's Bureau?
(1865-70) expansion of government/soldiers to go down south and assist previously enslaved blacks through transition
Why was the Freedman's Bureau's time extended?
The Black Codes made everything much harder to transition (as white racists hopes)
What did the Freedman's Bureau do?
provided food/clothing/healthcare, negioate with labor contracts, finding shelter, violence, legalize marriages, etc.
The 14th Amendment?
(1888) born on american soil = automatically an american citizen; also claims have equal rights under the law
What is the significance of the 14th Amendment?
gives basic human rights to over 4,000,000 newly freed slaves
The Reconstruction Act of 1867?
(1867) southern states organized into five military districts to help ensure change in south
Who was the Reconstruction Act named after?
republican party at time known as "radical republicans"
The 15th Amendment?
(1870) all men, regardless of race, are now allowed to vote
What was the backlash of The 15th Amendment?
republican women frustrated for sticking with a political party that gave black men the right to vote before white women; leads to some women falling on to racial stereotypes so that they don't get to vote before them
basically slavery, because getting paid but almost impossible to make a profit or even break even since they are constantly going in debt from the landowner
The Lost Cause?
basically how dad sees old south; gentile/noble society with emphasis on religion for reason of war; African Americans don't fit into this picture, why white supremacists trying for it
What false myths was The Lost Cause built upon?
the content slave: slave owners took care of slaves, making them happy with their work; monuments/states for soldiers/generals
What was the Reservation Program?
governments attempt of "dealing" with Native Americans by giving them the bad land and using their old good land for white settlers
The Dakota War?
(1862) half of Sioux tribe leaves, but those that leave nearly starve to death. some resists and have over 200 men sent to execution. Lincoln stops them after 38 deaths
The Nez Perce War?
(1877) try to flee to canada but stopped by american troops at boarder; chief joseph has them surrender bc diseased/starved
Who was Chief Joseph?
leader of Nez Perce War; wrote those two letters we had to read for our assignment
What is the significance of The Nez Pierce War?
marks end of large scale war/conflicts between native americans and white settlers
What was the significance of the Buffalo Extinction?
primary source for native americans and white government advertised/gave out rewards for the extinction of them, bc the native americans relied on them (basically evil intentions)
Indian Boarding Schools?
(1880-1890s) white washing of native american children; given new name, can only speak english, can be confisgated from family, if parent refuses to send them they will hold resources from reservation
putting people into main stream society
The Dawes Severalty Act?
(1877) breaks reservation land up into plots for families; male head of farming and woman basically domesticated (change bc men used to hunting and women used to farming)
What is Blood Quantum?
false attempt to calculate how much native american blood someone has
The Ghost Dance?
(1888-1890) religious dance that if do well enough, buffalo supposed to return, settlers leave, and NA can go back to normal; only by men and special ghost shirt worn
(1890) thinks ghost dance is an uprising and army opens fire amongst a crowd, kills 150-200 native americans
The Transcontinental Railroad?
(1869) railroad from east in west met in Utah to be connected; represents the connection of entire nation (specifically east and west lol)
The Homestead Act?
(1862) families given up to 160 acres of land for 5 years; get to keep it if they have made improvements
What are challenges to Homesteading?
land dries up, buying seed/tools on credit, growing the same thing, and lots of pests; speculators also come buying up lots of land and making it more expensive
The Exoduster Movement?
(1879) many black southerners leaving for places like Kansas in hopes of escaping racism/finding better employment
What does The Exoduster Movement derive from?
exodus second book of the torah, refernce to jews freedom from egypt
(1880s) political parties whose basic platform is to end chinese immigration
What causes americans to be anti-chinese?
started during gold rush when lots of male chinese came to look for gold, partly seen as competition but also alientation because of how different their culture is
The Chinese Exclusion Act?
(1882) bans immigration from china and chinese people the right to apply for US citizenship
What is the significance of the Chinese Exclusion Act?
first framework for immigration AND affirms white supremacy in the west
What was Chicago called when it received electricity?
(1893) The White City
What is the importance of electricity for women?
safer to be out at night; became less scandalous or "woman of the night"ish for women to be out
(1890s) creation of the assembly line; now can have unskilled people mass producing items
Hierarchy of Control?
(1890s) have more ppl rising to the middle class, because more can become managers (more pay)
(1890s) monopolized big oil through horizontal integration
(1890s) rockefeller would outsell areas by dropping his prices, asking to buy their business and put them on his trustees board; ended up having 95% oil industry
(1890s) buys up railroad lines and all the other companies that a steel producer relies on
(1890s) carnegie buys iron mines, coal mines, creates own ad agency in nyc, and railroad lines in order to make steel/transport/profit himself
What is the purpose of Horizontal Integration?
eventually have no competition
What is the purpose of Vertical Integration?
eventually only have to rely on yourself/own companies
The 2nd Mississippi Plan?
(1890s) poll taxes and literacy tests; made that much harder for southern african americans to vote
Who was Henry Grady?
atlanta journalist that falsely advertised that the south was different and that all that racism, etc was gone
The Grandfather Clause?
allowed white southerns to vote without passing literacy test, because grandfathers had been american citizens
Plessy v. Ferguson?
mixed man not allowed to sit in first class bc of his african american descent; sues that violation of 14th amendment. creates the concept of "separate but equal"
The Great Railroad Strike?
(1877) northeast railroad cuts wages by 10%, refused to work and blocked off potential for new worker to come in until that 10% was restored. no one operating the railroads from SF to Texas.
How did The Great Railroad Strike turn out?
fifty strikers dead and over $400,000 in property damage; sparked creation of organizations
The Knights of Labor?
(1870s-80s) first union seen in nation
What did the Knights of Labor want?
factories to be owned by workers, 8 hour work day, no child labor, safety laws for workplace, federal income tax, government to own railroads/telegraphs, and for the government to recognize their organization
Albert and Lucy Parsons'?
anarchists from texas that moved to chicago
The McCormick Strike?
(1886) strike at mccormick factory in Chicago; bomb thrown into crowd to officers and blamed on anarchists; Albert Parson and three other men executed
The Haymarket Bombing?
same as mccormick strike
What is the effect of the Mccormick Strike/Haymarket Bombing?
horrifies the middle class and ends the Knights of Labor ended, because associated with death of policemen
The American Federation of Labor?
(1880s-now) "pure and simple unionism"; only cared about working conditions and wages
How do the AFL and KOL differ?
AFL: only for skilled workers (no races/women), branch for each type of skilled work, not attemping massive economic change
The Pullman Strike?
(1894) george pullman cuts 25% of his workers wages without lowering rent; they go on strike and inspires most of railroads around nation, President Cleveland sends in 2,000 troops to end and protect new workers bc claims stopping mail from being delivered
What is Corporate Welfare?
when corportaions, like george pullman, to their workers like rent near work, stores, etc. in hopes of avoiding strikes and government interference
(early 1900s) journalists/photographers that wrote exposes about society
(1906) wrote "The Jungle" about the meat packing industry in Chicago; attempt to expose polish working conditions but ended up being about consumer health
What resulted from Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"?
(1906) pure drug and food act aka FDA; mandates industries with sanitation, listing ingredients, illegalizes making false claims about medicine
Leona Prall Groetzinger?
(1910) wrote "The City's Peril's"; exposed americans sex trade/traficking
What was the result of Leona Prall Groetzinger's "The City Peril's"?
(1910) created the mann act; federal crime to transport a sex worker/trafficker across state lines
The Social Gospel?
(1890s-1920s) cristian movement that attemps to help marginalized ppl
(1917) creator of social gospel from "A Theology for the Social Gospel"
The Settlement House Movement?
(1890s) big houses in areas that usually have large immigration; goal to improve basic living conditions and lives in area
Jane Addams and Hull House?
(1889) woman that created hull house; large settlement house in chicago
(1916) settlment house woman who helped women with birth control methods (tracking their cycles) to even rare cases of providing diaphrams or spermicide
(1899) factory inspector that founded the "factory consumers league"; make sure factory morking conditions good and safe
The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire?
(1911) majority factory workers women that were accused of taking too many breaks so they locked the firedoors; actual fire occurs and women either burn to death or jump out of windows in order to avoid the fire
(1913) photographic muckraker that took pictures of children in mines/textile mills
Child Labor Reform?
(1910s) children young as 6 working in dangerous/long/horrible working conditions; ppl advocating that this setting up not only their lives for the worse, but american society as a whole
creating "square deal": creationg of pure food and drug act, expansion of parks department, and regulation of corporations
Tax Busting and Tax Reform?
progressives really concerned about concentration of economic power; goals to break up monopolies (oil)
The 16th Amendment?
(1913) created income tax
The Australian Ballot?
(1890) private ballot stations, regulation of how many watchers of parties can be near ballot box, basically voting what we have today
(1910s) progressive/political reformer; governor of wisconsin
lol leslie knope
voters can directly vote on a legislation
The 17th Amendment?
(1913) US citizens can now directly vote for senators (originally selected by state legislators)