Blood Vessels

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created 10 years ago by Inna
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updated 10 years ago by Inna
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1

delivery system of dynamic structures that begins & ends at the heart

blood vessels

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arteries

carry blood away from heart

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_____ arteries carry deoxygenated blood

pulmonary

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arterioles

small arteries that empty into capillary beds

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capillaries

contact tissue cells + directly serve cellular needs
*exchange vessels

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veins

carry blood towards heart

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venules

small veins that drain capillary beds

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Arteries + veins have 3 layers (tunics)

intima, media, + externa

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lumen

central blood containing space

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capillaries

endothelium (layer of simple epethelium) with sparse basal lamina

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tunica intima

elastic

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inner lining of tunica intima

has direct contact with blood as it flows through the lumen
*lined with endothelium

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basement membrane of tunica intima

deep to the endothelium that provides physical support for the epithelial layer
*contains collagen fibers + provides tensile strength

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elastic lamina of tunica intima

elastic fibers that give vessels stretch + recoil properties

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tunica media

smooth muscle + sheets of elastin

sympathetic vasomotor nerve fibers control vascoconsrtiction + vasodilation of vessels

most variable of the tunics

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tunica externa (tunica adventitia)

consists of collagen + elastic fibers

larger vessels contain vasa vasorum to nourish the external layer

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vaso vasorum

small vessels that supply blood to the tissues of the cells

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tunica intima consists of

endothelium
subendothelial layer
internal elastic lamina

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tunica media consists of

smooth muscles + elastic fibers

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tunica externa

collagen fibers

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elastic arteries

*conducting arteries

act as pressure reservoirs- expand and recoil as blood is ejected from the heart

propel blood onward while ventricles are relaxing

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elastic arteries have ____ luman which offer ___-resistance

large; low

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muscular arteries

lie distal to elastic arteries

*deliver blood to body organs

***aka distributing arteries

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muscular arteries have thick ____ ____ with more smooth muscle

tunica media

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Anastomoses

union of 2+ arteries supplying the same body region

provide alternate routes for blood to reach a tissue/organ

referred to as collateral circulation

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arterioles

smallest arteries that lead to capillary beds

plays a key role in blood flow regulation from arteries into capillaries by regulating resistance

changes in diameter causes changes in blood pressure

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the tunica media of _______ consists of a layer of smooth muscle which controls flow into capillary beds via ____ + ____

artioles; vasodilation + vascoconstriction

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capillaries

has thin tunica intima

its large surface area provides rapid exchange of material

found in all tissues except cartiledge, epithelia, and the cornea + lens of the eye

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the thin tunica _____ of the ____ allows passage of only a single RBC at a time

intima; capillary

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3 structural types of capillaries

continuous, fenestrated, sinusoidal

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continuous capillares

most; abundant in skin + muscles

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fenestrated capillaries

porous; found in kidneys, villi of s. intestine, choroid plexuses of brain ventricles, ciliary processes of the eyes & most endocrine glands

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continuous capillary

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fenestrated capillary

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sinusoidal

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venules

formed when capillary beds unite

very porous; allow fluids + WBC's into tissues

post-capillary venules consist of endothelium and a few pericytes

converge to form veins

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larger venules have 1-2 layers of

smooth muscle cells

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veins

serve as blood reservoirs- contain up to 65% of the blood supply at rest

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structural features of veins

thinner walls + larger lumens than arteries

thin tunica media and thick tunica externa consisting of collagen fibers and elastic networks

valves

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valves

structural modifications of the endothelial lining that aid venous return

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varicose veins

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leaky venous valves that cause veins to become dilated & torturous

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capillary exchange: substances enter and leave capillaries in 3 ways

1. simple diffusion
2. trancytosis
3. bulk flow

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simple diffusion

*solute exchange between blood + tissues;
molecules and solutes move from an area of high to low concentration

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trancytosis

vesicular transport for large, lipid-insoluble molecules that can't diffuse simply

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bulk flow

large #'s of ions, molecules, particles in a fluid move together in the same direction

pressure driven filteration + reabsorption

regulates relative volumes of blood & interstitial

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filtration

pressure-driven movement of fluid + solutes from blood capillaries into interstitial spaces

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pressures promoting filtration

blood hydrostatic (pumping action of the heart)

interstitial fluid osmotic pressure

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reabsorption

pressure-driven movement of fluid + solutes from interstitial spaces to blood capillaries

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pressure promoting reabsorption

blood colloid osmotic pressure

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net filteration pressure

balances filtration + reabsorption

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starling's law of the capillaries

equilibrium maintained between pressure driven filtration + pressure driven reabsorption

*determines whether volume of fluid & solutes reabsorbed matches the filtered-volume

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Net Filtration Pressure =

NFP= (BHP + IFOP) - (BCOP + IFHP)

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Blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP)

result of pressure that water in blood plasma exerts against vessel walls

*35 mmHg

-pushes fluid out of the capillaries into interstitial fluid

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interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFOP)

opposes BHP
* close to 0 mmHg
-pushes fluid from interstitial spaces back into capillaries

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blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)

force caused by colloidal suspension of large plasma proteins
*26 mmHg
-Pulls fluid out of the interstitial fluid into capillaries

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Interstitial fluid osmotic pressure (IFOP)

Opposes BCOP
Approximately 0.1-5 mmHg
Pulls fluid out of capillaries into interstitial fluid

*Usually only a small amount of protein here because most of it is taken up by the lymphatic system

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Filtration: NFP

NFP = about 10 mmHg at the arterial end of a capillary so that there is a net outward pressure and fluid moves out of the capillary and into interstitial spaces

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Reabsorption: NFP

NFP = -9 mmHg at the venous end of the capillary so that there is a net inward pressure and fluid moves into the capillary from the tissue spaces

85% of fluid filtered out of the capillaries is reabsorbed

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NFP: Excess enters ______ and is returned to the jugular and subclavian veins in the

lymphatic system; upper thorax

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