chapter 3 nutrition

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1

Based on current research, what are the two factors needed for development of celiac disease?

-genetic predisposition to celiac disease
-dietary exposure to gluten

2

Which organelles are capable of converting energy from nutrients into a form the cells can use

mitochondria

3

What is the order of the parts of the small intestine in order they appear in the GI tract?

-duodenum
-jejunum
-ileum

4

Enzymes are made of

proteins

5

It is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but some possible causes include.

depression and stress

alteration of hormones that regulate the movement of food through the gi tract

inflammatory responses

6

what yields energy?

fat

protein

carbs

7

organ that stores bile

gallbladder

8

Pancreas

Produces glucagon

and insulin

9

liver

produces bile

10

illiustrate the relationship between the immune system and nutritional status

an individual with HIV is at increased risk of contracting food-borne illness

an individual with vitamin c defiency suffers from impaired wound healing

populations in areas stricken by famine

11

The digestive system supports the immune system by

preventing pathogens in food from invading the body

12

Depending on the contents of a meal food moves from the ___________into the small intestines over the course of 1-4 hours.

stomach

13

The cell membrane is a lipid bilayer of phospholipid

True

14

human metabolism includes

They enable us to release and use energy from foods,

synthesize one substance from another

and prepare waste products for excretion.

15

How well a person's individual organs work is determined by

his/her overall nutritional state.

16

DNA is stored in the _______ of the cell

Nucleus

17

____________is a segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein.

Gene

18

Vitamins and minerals can be broken down to yield energy

False

19

What is a true statement about organelles?

an organelle performs a specialized function

a lysosome is one example of an organelle

an organelle may be a compartment, particle or filament within the cell

20

Vitamin B12

Plays a role in the formation of myelin sheath

21

Most of the time the brain relies on ________ as it's source of enegy

glucose

22

increasing fiber and fluid intakes corrects mild cases of

constipation

23

How does fiber work in reducing constipation?

fiber stimulates persistalis by drawing water into the large intestines.

24

Treatment for mild constipation include

additional flud

relaxation

schedule bowel movements at the same time each day

physical activity

25

laxatives lessen constipation by

Increasing fecal bulk

stimulating the nerves of the gi tract

drawing water into the large intestines

26

signs of hemorrohoids

pain with bowel movements

itching in the rectal area

streaks of blood in the stool

27

Symptoms associated with ____ include visible abdominal distention, pain relief after a bowel movement, increased stool frequency, loose stools with pain onset, mucus in stool, and a feeling of incomplete elimination after a bowel movement.

IBS

28

Increasing __________ helps with IBS symptoms

soluable fiber

29

Prompt treatment of dehydration—within 24 to 48 hours—is critical, especially for

infants and older adults

30

Gallstones are pieces of solid material that develop in the gallbladder when substances in the bile—primarily __________(80% of gallstones)—form crystal-like particles

cholesterol

31

The secretion of more cholesterol into bile leads to

gallstones

32

In those with celiac disease exposure to _________causing a flattening of the villi, which thereby reduces the absorptive surface

gluten

33

Malabsorption of nutrients caused by __________ can lead to weight loss anemia, infertility and bone loss

celiac disease

34

Grains that should be eliminated from the diet if someone has celiac disease

wheat / rye

35

What type of flour is gluten free

rice

36

Some people experience symptoms of celiac disease after ingestion of gluten, but they do not have the small intestinal pathology of celiac disease, nor do they express the antibodies typical of celiac disease.

nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), sometimes called gluten intolerance.

37

Nonceliac gluten sensitivity symptoms

joint pain, fatique, headaches and sleep disorders.

38

Vomiting blood or what looks like coffee grounds and the appearance of black, tarry stools are signs of bleeding in the GI tract

peptic ulcer

39

___________symptoms may include pain, nausea, gagging, cough, or hoarseness. The recurrent and therefore more serious form of the problem is called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Acid reflux

40

An individual with GERD should lie down after eating due to

promotes stomach acid to enter the esophagus

41

The catabolic form of metabolism

takes molecules apart.

42

The breakdown of glucose in the initial phase of metabolism is

anaerobic

43

The aerobic phase takes place in

mitochondria

44

a primary treatment of gallstones are

surgical removal

45

Gluten is naturally found in

wheat, rye and barley

46

People with celiac disease experience an autoimmune response when

they consume gluten

47

Long term use of antibiotics can kill the bacteria in the large intestines, thereby leading to ___________-

vitamin K

48

Lipase and amylase are two components of__________ which is produced by glands in the mouth

Salava

49

Amylase is an enzyme needed to digest

starch

50

the epiglottis prevent a bolus from entering the ___________

trachea

51

persistalsis refers to

waves of muscular contractions that propel food along the gastrointestinal tract