CHAPTER 4 AND 5

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CARBON AND THE MOLECULAR DIVERSITY / STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LARGE BIOLICICAL MOLECULES
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biology 201
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1

Cells: 70–95% water
The rest: carbon-based compounds

Remaining major ingredients:
Hydrogen (H)
Oxygen (O)
Nitrogen (N)
Sulfur (S)
Phosphorus (P)

2

Organic chemistry

the study of compounds that contain carbon

3

Vitalism

the idea that organic compounds arise only in organisms

4

Miller-Urey Experiment

Test whether organic compounds can be made from simple compounds

5

Electron configuration

the key to an atom’s characteristics.

determines the kinds and number of bonds an atom will form with other atoms

6

Carbon has how many electrons?

6 : 2 in the first shell, and 4 in the second

With four valence electrons, carbon can form four covalent bonds with a variety of atoms
This tetravalence makes large, complex molecules possible

7

What governs the architecture of living molecules?

The valences of carbon and its most frequent partners (hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen)

The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibility with many different elements

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Hydrocarbons are ?

Organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen

Undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy

9

Isomers are ?

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and hence different properties:
Structural Isomers
Cis-Trans Isomers (Geometric Isomers)
Enantiomers

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Structural isomers

different covalent arrangements of their atoms

As the number of Carbons increase, so too do the number of isomers

11

Cis-Trans isomers (Geometric isomers)

Have the same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements
Single bonds allow rotation – Double bonds are NOT flexible
Conversion from one to the other is important for biological processes

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Enantiomers

are isomers that are mirror images of each other

The middle carbon is “asymmetric” because it has 4 different groups attached

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Functional groups

The components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions

The number and arrangement of functional groups give each molecule its unique properties

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The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life:

Hydroxyl group -OH
Carbonyl group >CO
Carboxyl group -COOH
Amino group _NH2
Sulfhydryl group -SH
Phosphate group – OPO32-
Methyl group –CH3

15

Hydroxyl Group

Polar due to electronegative oxygen. Forms hydrogen bonds with water.
Compound name: Alcohol

16

Carbonyl Group

Sugars with ketone groups are called ketoses; those with aldehydes
are called aldoses.
Compound name: Ketone or aldehyde

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Carboxyl Group

Acts as an acid.
Compound name: Carboxylic acid, or organic acid

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Amino Group

Acts as a base.
Compound name: Amine

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Sulfhydryl Group

Two —SH groups can react, forming a “cross-link” that helps stabilize
protein structure.
Compound name: Thiol

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Phosphate Group

Contributes negative charge. When attached, confers on a molecule the ability
to react with water, releasing energy.
Compound name: Organic phosphate

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Methyl Group

Affects the expression of genes. Affects the shape and function of
sex hormones.
Compound name: Methylated compound

22

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

The primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell

Consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups

ATP becomes ADP

23

All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

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Macromolecules

Are large molecules composed of thousands of covalently connected atoms

Molecular structure and function are inseparable

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polymer

is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks

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dehydration reaction

Occurs when two monomers bond together through the loss of a water molecule

Synthesizing a polymer

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hydrolysis

Polymers are disassembled to monomers

a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction

Breaking down of a polymer

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Carbohydrates

Include sugars and the polymers of sugars
Serve as fuel and building material

Simplest : Monosaccharides, or single sugars
2 monosaccharides : Disaccharides
Many sugars: Polysaccharides

29

Monosaccharides

have molecular formulas that are usually multiples of CH2O

Glucose (the most common)

serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules

30

disaccharide

formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides

This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage

31

Polysaccharides

A few hundred to a few thousand monomers!

The structure and function determined by its monomers and the positions of glycosidic linkages

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Starch

A storage polysaccharide of plants

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Glycogen

Storage polysaccharide in animals

All glucose
Mainly in liver and muscle cells
More branched than plant starch
Hydrolysis occurs when glucose is needed for energy

34

Cellulose

forms the tough wall of plant cells
Most abundant organic compound on earth

35

Chitin

another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods

Chitin also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungi

36

Lipids

A diverse group of hydrophobic molecules
Do not form polymers

The unifying feature of lipids: little or no affinity for water
Hydrophobic
Consist mostly of hydrocarbons, which form nonpolar covalent bonds

37

The most biologically important lipids are

Fats
Phospholipids
Steroids

38

triacylglycerol

three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage

The fatty acids can all be the same or different

39

Hydrogenation

is the process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen

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Fat function -

energy storage

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phospholipid

two fatty acids and a phosphate group are attached to glycerol
The two fatty acid tails are hydrophobic, but the phosphate group and its attachments form a hydrophilic head. (hydrophobic tails pointing toward the interior)

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Enzymes

They are a type of protein that acts as a catalyst to speed up chemical reactions

43

Polypeptides

are polymers built from the same set of 20 amino acids