BIO 201 CHAPTER 1

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Evolution, The Themes of Biology and Scientific Inquiry
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biology 201
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1

Evolution is?

An organism’s adaptations to its environment

  • For example, the color of the beach mouse has come to be well matched, or adapted, to its local background
  • Evolution is the process of change that has transformed life on Earth
2

Biology is a subject of enormous scope
There are five unifying themes

Organization
Information
Energy and Matter
Interactions
Evolution

3

What is a cell?

An Organism’s Basic Unit of Structure and Function

  • The cell is the smallest unit of organization that can perform all activities required for life
    Every cell is enclosed by a membrane that regulates passage of materials between the cell and its environment
    The cells of bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic, while all other forms of life are composed of eukaryotic cells
4

Eukaryotic cell

Has membrane-enclosed organelles, the largest of which is usually the nucleus

5

Prokaryotic cell

Simpler and usually smaller and does not contain a nucleus or other membrane-enclosed organelles

6

DNA

Within cells, structures called chromosomes contain genetic material in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

  • Each chromosome contains one long DNA molecule with hundreds or thousands of genes
7

Genes

The units of inheritance.

  • They encode information for building the molecules synthesized within the cell
    The genetic information encoded by DNA directs the development of an organism
8

Each DNA molecule is made up of ?

Two long chains arranged in a double helix

9

Each chain (DNA) is made up of ?

Four kinds of chemical building blocks called nucleotides and abbreviated A, G, C, and T

10

For many genes, the sequence provides the blueprint for making ?

Protein;

  • DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into a protein
11

Gene expression

The process of converting information from gene to cellular product