Bio 211 Learnsmart chapter 19
Describe the general function of the cardiovascular system.
general function of the cardiovascular system is to circulate blood throughout the body to meet the changing needs of body cells. To remain healthy, all cells require (1) a continuous delivery of oxygen and nutrients and (2) the removal of carbon dioxide and other waste products
pouring) is the delivery of blood per unit time per gram of tissue. It is typically expressed in milliliters per minute per gram (mL/min/g).
Differentiate among the three primary types of blood vessels.
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins carry blood to the heart
Capillaries are the exchange system for gases and waste , blood
Why would it be significant if the cardiovascular system failed to maintain adequate perfusion
Maintaining adequate perfusion requires both the continual pumping action of the heart Page 743and healthy, patent (open and unblocked) blood vessels. If the heart fails to pump sufficient volumes of blood, or the vessels become hardened or occluded (blocked), then an adequate amount of blood may not reach the body’s cells. Thus, tissues will be deprived of needed oxygen and nutrients, waste products accumulate, and cell death may occur
Describe the general structure and function of the heart.
the center of the cardiovascular system. It is a hollow, four-chambered organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
Three anatomic features are significant in the normal function of the heart: (1) the two sides of the heart, (2) the great vessels attached to the heart, and (3) the two sets of valves located within the heart
The function of the cardiovascular system is to maintain _________of all body tissues
the __________of the heart receives blood and the _________pumps blood to the lungs and the body tissues
The ___________ transports blood from the right ventricle, whereas the_________ transports blood from the left ventricle
pulmonary trunk /aorta
The _______________includes the movement of blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange.
pulmonary circulation (or pulmonary circuit)
___________ blood is transported from (3) the left side of the heart through blood vessels to (4) the systemic cells such as those of the liver, skin, muscle, and brain.
The systemic circulation includes the movement of oxygenated blood through the ________side of the heart
The __________are smaller than the ___________
What vessels attached to the heart contain oxygenated blood?
major blood vessels that are connected to the heart include the aorta, the superior vena cava, the inferior vena cava, the pulmonary artery .
Inotropic agents alter ___________, which is the force of contraction at a given stretch of the cardiac muscle cells.
Increase Ca2t levels
blood enters the right ventricle through the
the right atrium
The _________AV valve is called the tricuspid valve
the boundaries between the ventricles and the atrial trunks are called ________valves
In the pulmonary circuit ___________blood is transported from the right side of the heart to the ____________.
The anatomic feature that are significant in the normal function of the heart are
(1) the two sides of the heart,
(2) the great vessels attached to the heart,
(3) the two sets of valves located within the heart
____________is the resistance in arteries to the ejection of blood by the ventricles, and it represents the pressure that must be exceeded before blood is ejected from the chamber
Afterload is the pressure the heart must work against to pump blood into the
Heart rate is altered by stimulation of the SA node or the
The ___________empty into the right atrium
superior and inferior vena cava
The pulmonary (pŭl′mō-nār-ē; pulmo = lung) circulation (or pulmonary circuit) includes the movement of blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange. Deoxygenated blood is transported from (1) the right side of the heart through blood vessels to (2) the
Which type of muscle cell exhibits a longer refractory period?
Cardiac Muscle Cell
Put the steps of the cardiac cycle into the correct
starting with the beginning of the cardiac cycle.
early ventricular systole
late ventricular systole
early ventricular diastole
late ventricular diastole
What is the sequence of events in the transmission of an impulse through the heart muscle?
through the atria
through the ventricles
The AV node delay:
allows the atria and ventricles to depolarize and contract separately.
Calcium channels in the nodal cells function to:
cause depolarization and initiate cardiac action potential.
What part of the cardiac conduction system is located in
posterior wall of the right atrium, adjacent to the entrance of
the superior vena cava?
As we age _______is deposited in the epicardium and so this layer becomes______
The myocardium is the __________of the three heart wall layers
The endocardium is composed of a ____________squamous epithelium called endothelium and a layer of ___________ connective tissue.
The position of the interventricular septum is deep to the ___________located on the hearts superficial surface
The posterior atrial wall is smooth but the auricle and anterior wall exhibit obvious muscular ridges called
The right atrium receives venous blood from the
superior and inferior vena cavae
There is an oval depression in the interatrial septum called the
The superior region of the right ventricle narrows before it leads into the
The_____________is positioned between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk
pulmonary semilunar valve
Papillary muscles anchor thin strands of collagen fibers called
tendinous cords or chordae tendineae
Thin strands attached to the atrioventricular valves is called
Openings of __________ are visible in the left atrium
The left ventricle normally has _________papillary muscles
The right atrioventricular opening is covered by the
right atrioventricular valve and tricuspid
T/F conditions such as hypertropic cardiomyopathy only effects elderly patients
The first heart sound is the sound of the __________produciing the Lubb sound
A ____________ is an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulent blood as it passes through the heart.