Bio 211 Learnsmart chapter 19

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1

Describe the general function of the cardiovascular system.

general function of the cardiovascular system is to circulate blood throughout the body to meet the changing needs of body cells. To remain healthy, all cells require (1) a continuous delivery of oxygen and nutrients and (2) the removal of carbon dioxide and other waste products

2

Define perfusion.

pouring) is the delivery of blood per unit time per gram of tissue. It is typically expressed in milliliters per minute per gram (mL/min/g).

3

Differentiate among the three primary types of blood vessels.

arteries carry blood away from the heart

veins carry blood to the heart

Capillaries are the exchange system for gases and waste , blood

4

Why would it be significant if the cardiovascular system failed to maintain adequate perfusion

Maintaining adequate perfusion requires both the continual pumping action of the heart Page 743and healthy, patent (open and unblocked) blood vessels. If the heart fails to pump sufficient volumes of blood, or the vessels become hardened or occluded (blocked), then an adequate amount of blood may not reach the body’s cells. Thus, tissues will be deprived of needed oxygen and nutrients, waste products accumulate, and cell death may occur

5

Describe the general structure and function of the heart.

the center of the cardiovascular system. It is a hollow, four-chambered organ that pumps blood throughout the body.

Three anatomic features are significant in the normal function of the heart: (1) the two sides of the heart, (2) the great vessels attached to the heart, and (3) the two sets of valves located within the heart

6

The function of the cardiovascular system is to maintain _________of all body tissues

perfusion

7

the __________of the heart receives blood and the _________pumps blood to the lungs and the body tissues

atria/ ventricles

8

The ___________ transports blood from the right ventricle, whereas the_________ transports blood from the left ventricle

pulmonary trunk /aorta

9

The _______________includes the movement of blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange.

pulmonary circulation (or pulmonary circuit)

10

___________ blood is transported from (3) the left side of the heart through blood vessels to (4) the systemic cells such as those of the liver, skin, muscle, and brain.

Oxygenated

11

The systemic circulation includes the movement of oxygenated blood through the ________side of the heart

left

12

The __________are smaller than the ___________

atria/ventricles

13

What vessels attached to the heart contain oxygenated blood?

major blood vessels that are connected to the heart include the aorta, the superior vena cava, the inferior vena cava, the pulmonary artery .

14

Inotropic agents alter ___________, which is the force of contraction at a given stretch of the cardiac muscle cells.

contractility

15

Inotropic agents

increase contractility

Increase Ca2t levels

16

blood enters the right ventricle through the

the right atrium

17

The _________AV valve is called the tricuspid valve

right

18

the boundaries between the ventricles and the atrial trunks are called ________valves

semilunar

19

In the pulmonary circuit ___________blood is transported from the right side of the heart to the ____________.

deoxygenated/ lungs

20

The anatomic feature that are significant in the normal function of the heart are

(1) the two sides of the heart,

(2) the great vessels attached to the heart,

(3) the two sets of valves located within the heart

21

____________is the resistance in arteries to the ejection of blood by the ventricles, and it represents the pressure that must be exceeded before blood is ejected from the chamber

Afterload

22

Afterload is the pressure the heart must work against to pump blood into the

systemic circulation

23

Heart rate is altered by stimulation of the SA node or the

AV node

24

The ___________empty into the right atrium

superior and inferior vena cava

25

The pulmonary (pŭl′mō-nār-ē; pulmo = lung) circulation (or pulmonary circuit) includes the movement of blood to and from the lungs for gas exchange. Deoxygenated blood is transported from (1) the right side of the heart through blood vessels to (2) the

lungs

26

Which type of muscle cell exhibits a longer refractory period?

Cardiac Muscle Cell

27

Put the steps of the cardiac cycle into the correct order,
starting with the beginning of the cardiac cycle.

Atrial systole

early ventricular systole

late ventricular systole

early ventricular diastole

late ventricular diastole

28

What is the sequence of events in the transmission of an impulse through the heart muscle?

SA Node

through the atria

AV node

AV bundle

Bundle branches

purkinje fibers

through the ventricles

29

The AV node delay:

allows the atria and ventricles to depolarize and contract separately.

30

Calcium channels in the nodal cells function to:

cause depolarization and initiate cardiac action potential.

31

What part of the cardiac conduction system is located in the
posterior wall of the right atrium, adjacent to the entrance of
the superior vena cava?

SA Node

32

As we age _______is deposited in the epicardium and so this layer becomes______

fat/ thicker

33

The myocardium is the __________of the three heart wall layers

thickest

34

The endocardium is composed of a ____________squamous epithelium called endothelium and a layer of ___________ connective tissue.

simple/ areolar

35

The position of the interventricular septum is deep to the ___________located on the hearts superficial surface

interventricular sulci

36

The posterior atrial wall is smooth but the auricle and anterior wall exhibit obvious muscular ridges called

pectinate muscle

37

The right atrium receives venous blood from the

superior and inferior vena cavae

38

There is an oval depression in the interatrial septum called the

fossa ovalis

39

The superior region of the right ventricle narrows before it leads into the

Pulmonary trunk

40

The_____________is positioned between the right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

pulmonary semilunar valve

41

Papillary muscles anchor thin strands of collagen fibers called

tendinous cords or chordae tendineae

42

Thin strands attached to the atrioventricular valves is called

chordae tendineae

43

Openings of __________ are visible in the left atrium

Pulmonary veins

44

The left ventricle normally has _________papillary muscles

two

45

The right atrioventricular opening is covered by the

right atrioventricular valve and tricuspid

46

T/F conditions such as hypertropic cardiomyopathy only effects elderly patients

false

47

The first heart sound is the sound of the __________produciing the Lubb sound

atrioventricular.

48

A ____________ is an abnormal heart sound caused by turbulent blood as it passes through the heart.

heart murmur