PHIL 211 Test 1
What is logic?
Good and bad reasoning
What does logic provide?
Criteria (tests) for distinguishing good and bad arguments
What is a counterexample?
Possible situation in which the premises are all true, but the conclusion is false
What does an argument need in order to be an argument?
Several statements, distinct premises and conclusion
What is a narrative, and how is it different from an argument?
It tells a story or idea, but an argument is taking a stance on something
What are some conclusion indicators?
therefore, hence, so, thus
What are some premise indicators?
because, since, for
To formulate an arguments to explicitly set out what?
Premises and conclusion, either in words or diagrams
Method of formulating arguments
Find the conclusion, find the explicit premises, attribute implicit premises if necessary
What is the principle of charity?
Attributing common knowledge or common ground between those in dispute to give the best reconstruction or the argument
What is a deductive argument?
One in which the conclusion strictly follows the premises (strict proof)
What is an inductive argument?
Apply to facts and events that can be repeated, and extrapolate from the known to the unknown
What is a sound argument?
Valid and has all true premises