List of Fallacies

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created 7 weeks ago by cla475084
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philosophy, logic
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1

Denying the antecedent

If A then B, not A, not B

2

Affirming the consequent

If A then B, B, A

3

The argument from ignorance

Claiming the because no-one knows that something is false (or has been able to prove it false,) it is true, or vice versa

4

Argument ad hominem (against the man)

claims that because the source is bad, his/her claims can be dismissed

5

Fallacy of Equivocation

Using the same term with different meanings in different premises so that the premises do not connect

6

Fallacy of false / questionable cause

claiming the because A happened before (or at the same time as ) B, A caused B, without any evidence of a connection

7

Fallacy of confused cause / effect

It is assumed without evidence that A caused B when it could be the other way around

8

Is/ought fallacy

Moving from a statement of fact (a description) to a statement of value (prescription)

9

Fallacy of Composition

Arguing the because all the parts have some feature F, the whole has F

10

Fallacy of division

The reverse fallacy: arguing that because the whole has some feature F, the parts all have F

11

Appeal to Emotions

Attempting to make a statement seem true or false by creating an emotional response , but without provide relevant evidence

12

Slippery slope

The claim is made that if we start at point A, we will inevitably slide to point B (a bad thing), but no good evidence is provide that the slide is inevitable or even likely (NOT a fallacy if the slope IS slippery)

13

The Straw Man

Attack a weak caricature of the presenter's real position

14

False Alternatives

Assume fewer possibilities than warranted by the evidence, thereby ignoring alternatives

15

Begging the Question

Assuming what needs to be proved (circular reasoning)

16

Red herring (irrelevant premises)

The original conclusion is retained, but is "supported" by irrelevant premises

17

Irrelevant Conclusion (ignoratio elenchi)

A conclusion irrelevant to the issue is proved

18

Suppressed evidence

Deliberately omit evidence that weakens the conclusion

19

Appeal to inappropriate authority

Someone may have authoritative knowledge, but not on the topic at hand

20

Faulty analogy

Carrying an analogy too far