Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology: Chapter 2: Specialized Imaging Techniques Flashcards


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1

When radiologists interpret images, they use a common terminology called _______ ________.

imaging features.

2

Terms used to describe imaging features:

-Location -Size -Density -Structure -Shape -Demarcation -Perfusion -Integration

3

a noninvasive imaging modality that uses high-frequency sound waves produced by electrical stimulation of a specialized crystal.

ultrasound

4

uses specially designed x-ray tubes to provide high quality images of the breast.

mammography

5

Mammo image creation

mammo ionizing radiation- x-ray attenuation of breast tissue

6

mammo image receptor

mammo digital plate or analog system

7

mammo image descriptors

same as used for General x-ray

8

ultrasound is a ______-sectional imaging technique.

cross

9

ultrasound advantages:

1. Uses no radiation. 2. Real-time examination possible. 3. Units are mobile. 4. Has high sensitivity and specifically in certain situations. 5. Low cost 6. Availability 7. Ability to differentiate cystic, solid, and complex tissues

10

ultrasound image creations

transducer production of multi-frequency sound waves

11

ultrasound image receptor

Transducer receiving echoed signal

12

ultrasound imaging descriptors

Anechoic hyperechoic and hypoechoic isoechoic

13

(dark region) Echo free tissue or structure or lacking a signal

Anechoic

14

lighter shade and darker shade comparison of echo intensities for adjacent tissues

hyperechoic (lighter shade) and hypoechoic (darker shade)

15

(same shade) two structures that have the same echogenicity

isoechoic

16

produces cross-sectional tomography images by first gaining a slice of tissue from multiple angles with a collimated x-ray beam when calculating a relative linear attenuation coefficient representing the amount of radiation absorbed in the tissues for the various tissue elements in the section and finally displaying the commuted reconstruction as a gray-scale image on an Imaging monitor.

computed tomography(CT)

17

CT uses radiation to produce _______ _______ ________

cross-sectional images.

18

____________ techniques are available. Adjust grayscale and brightness - window and level 3-D images

postprocessing

19

Scan times are very _______. CT enables imaging of all _______ _______ and _________.

efficient body systems and organs

20

CT image creation

Collimated x-ray beam attenuation detection

21

CT image receptor

Detectors receiving the attenuated signal

22

CT image descriptors

CT number (Hounsfield number) highest CT number is 1000 lowest CT number is -1000 window width window level

23

reflects the attenuation of a specific tissue relative to water which equals 0

CT number (Hounsfield number)

24

reflects bone (appears White)

highest CT number is 1000

25

represent air (appears black)

lowest CT number is -1000

26

spiral continuous motion

helical

27

grayscale contrast scale

window width

28

midpoint or Center of total number of densities

window level

29

enhancing brightness intensity

maximum intensity projections(MIPs)

30

enhancing lowest intensities(colonoscopy)

minimum intensity projection(MiniIPs)

31

3D rendering demonstrating the surface or selected structures

shaded surface rendering and volume rendering

32

technique taking all the raw CT data density information and using them to stimulate three-dimensional images

volume rendered Imaging

33

demonstrates internal structures for virtual bronchoscopy or colonoscopy

virtual reality(VR)

34

Magnetic renaissance imaging (MRI)

a strong magnet producing radio frequencies at specific intervals and receives a return signal to produce an image

35

How are magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) images attained?

Images are obtained by placing the anatomic part in a strong static magnetic field and directing a radiofrequency (RF) pulse of a specific frequency at the area.

36

refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current -commonly in the 1 to 100-megahertz range- and their effect upon a body is potential heating of tissues in MRI

radio frequency pulse(RP)

37

What is the MRI process?

This process induces hydrogen atoms (protons) to alternate between high-energy and low-energy states by absorbing and then releasing, or transferring, energy.

38

What is functional MRI?

a brain imaging technique that reveals both brain structure and brain activity more precisely and rapidly than a pet scan. allows the localization of specific regions of the brain that correspond to various functions

39

MRI is the modality of choice for ________________________, ______, and ____________________.

This is the modality of choice for imaging the CNS, spine, and many musculoskeletal conditions.

40

What is an advantage of using MRI imaging?

Excellent soft tissue resolution and differentiation of tissue differences are obtained through a variety of pulse sequences.

41

What is the disadvantage of using MRI imaging?

Scan times are longer. -This increases difficulty in imaging some organs. -Some patients have difficulty with claustrophobia.

42

MRI image creation

radiofrequency pulses emitted to change hydrogen atom energy states

43

MRI image receptor

Receiver coil to detect energy changes to relaxation times

44

MRI pulse sequence

T1-weighted T2-weighted Fat suppression Susceptibility waited Diffusion weighted

45

T1-weighted MRI

High signals(bright) include fat. subcutaneous Hemorrhage, melanin, and slow-flowing blood, and IV contrast equilibrium high-energy protons return to the low energy state

46

t2-weighted MRI

High signals(bright) include water; lower signal intensity (intermittent to dark) include muscle and soft tissue; low signal intensity(dark) may indicate cortical bone, calcium, air, or fast-flowing blood(no signal) the image relies on local dephasing of spins

47

fat suppression MRI

differentiates fat from contrast material to highlight vascular structures require "saturation or full magnetization" on the T1 sequence to ensure a large contrast difference between fat and water

48

susceptibility weighted MRI

extremely sensitive to products that creates changes in magnetic susceptibility low signal intensity(dark); hemorrhage, calcium

49

diffusion weighted MRI

High signal intensity(bright) where random movement of water is restricted; stroke, liver lesions

50

relies on the movement of molecules and random thermal motion

diffusion imaging

51

used in conjunction with diffusion Imaging also relies on Fast scanning techniques and Rapid infusion of an intravenous contrast agent to visualize that transmit time of blood through the specific area

perfusion imaging

52

nuclear medicine

using radiopharmaceuticals to produce ionizing radiation that protects by gamma camera to produce an image

53

How does nuclear medicine work?

Nuclear medicine requires the patient to ingest or be injected (IV or IM) with a radiopharmaceutical that emits radiation.

54

radiopharmaceutical

a drug that is tagged to emit ionizing radiation

55

How are nuclear medicine images created?

Images are created by measuring the signals radiating from the patient.

56

What is an advantage of nuclear medicine?

This allows for visualization of physiologic processes. It detects some diseases earlier than other modalities.

57

a sodium iodide crystal detects ionizing radiation emitted from the patient

gamma camera

58

The gamma camera has a ________ made of lead that contains multiple parallel channels. These channels only allow rays that are perpendicular to the camera to pass and be detected while attenuating those that are not.

collimator

59

single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

gamma camera moves around the patient and detects the gamma rays produced by the radiopharmaceuticals

60

SPECT is an aspect of ________ imaging. It uses the same _______________.

SPECT is an aspect of NM imaging. It uses the same radiopharmaceuticals.

61

SPECT camera has the ability to ______ independently around the patient.

SPECT camera has the ability to rotate independently around the patient.

62

A computer uses the data to reconstruct _______________ images very much like CT or MRI. Images can be __________, __________, or ___________ plane.

A computer uses the data to reconstruct 3D sectional images very much like CT or MRI. Images can be transverse, coronal, or sagittal plane.

63

NM and SPECT image creation

radiopharmaceuticals that emit gamma radiation

64

NM image receptor

gamma camera that detects gamma radiation emitted from patients

65

SPECT image receptor

rotating gamma cameras for multiplanar gamma radiation collection

66

NM and SPECT Imaging descriptors

hot spots and cold spots

67

NM and SPECT hot spot

increases uptake directly proportional to the emission of gamma radiation

68

NM and SPECT cold spots

reflection of decreased uptake directly proportional to the emission of gamma radiation

69

using a radiopharmaceutical that emits a positron that the moving Gamma camera to text to produce an image

positron emission tomography(PET)

70

How does PET imaging work?

PET uses a radionuclide tracer similar to a naturally occurring substance in the body, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, or glucose.

71

How does PET image distribution work?

The imaging distribution of the tracer allows for demonstration of detailed metabolic activity of the area of interest.

72

What is PET Imaging useful for?

It is especially useful in oncology, cardiology, and neurology.

73

PET image creation

radiopharmaceutical that emits a positron; through the collection following annihilation two gamma rays are created

74

interaction produces two high-energy protons(gamma rays) and opposite directions(separated by 180 degrees)

annihilation

75

PET image receptor

Two opposite gamma cameras that detect gamma radiation simultaneously emitted from patient

76

PET Imaging descriptors

3D distinguishes diseased or necrotic tissue from healthy or normal tissue demonstrates tissue viability

77

PET 3D

three planes of colored images to demonstrate the biochemistry of tissue(biological map)

78

Fusion imaging combines _________ images with _________________ images.

Fusion imaging combines anatomic images with metabolic function images.

79

Fusion Imaging increases the accuracy of a ______.

Fusion Imaging increases the accuracy of a diagnosis.

80

equipment designed to image to modality simultaneously integrate the images

direct Fusion

81

two types of Direct fusion imaging

PET/CT SPECT/CT

82

Fusion Imaging image creation

- combination of two Imaging modalities(most common PET /CT) - integrated Imaging - direct Fusion

83

Fusion Imaging integrated Imaging

software creates images overlaying modality image data set

84

Fusion Imaging direct Fusion

simultaneous image creation

85

Fusion Imaging image receptor

two imaging receptors of modalities employed

86

Fusion Imaging Imaging descriptors

specific to Imaging modalities used to create fused images