Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology: Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathology Flashcards
localized, usually encapsulated, collection of pus
impairment of cellular immunity most commonly affects young homosexual men and intravenous drug users
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a person forms antibodies to counteract an antigen in the form of vaccine or toxoid
hypersensitive reaction resulting in a histamine release, reactions are characterized by hypotension and vascular collapse (shock) with urticaria (hives), bronchiolar spasm, and laryngeal edema
without form characterized by a loss of differentiation of cells and their orientation to one another; a characteristic of malignant tumors
generalized edema that occurs with pronounced swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body
immunoglobulins responding to the antigens to make them harmless body's counteraction to control antigens
a foreign substance that invokes an immune response body's ability to recognize foreign substances
a patient showing no evidence of diseases without subjective or objective manifestations
reduction in the size or number of cells in an organ or tissue with a corresponding decreasing function diminished size due to wasting away
44 of the chromosomes other than X and Y all chromosomes except gender
bacteria spread through the circulatory system potential involvement of other organs and tissues in the body by organisms invading the blood vessels
tumors that closely resemble their cell of origin and structure and function and remain localized
collectively malignant tumors
malignant neoplasm of epithelial cell origins
Infected by exposure in the public domain
either the antigen is a component of a cell or it attaches to the wall of the red blood cell, white blood cell, platelet, or vascular endothelial cells. This allergy involves antibodies that circulate in the blood and attack antigens (the drug) on cell sites, causing the death of that cell. This reaction is not immediate but may be seen over a few days. EX. wrong blood type is given to a patient
occurs in an individual previously sensitized to an antigen EX. the first time a person touches poison ivy, no reaction occurs. however, on the second exposure to poison ivy, antibodies are present to attack the antigen, and the patient develops a typical rash and irritation.
identification of disease process the precise disease process affecting the patient
the pattern of a body's response to some form of injury that causes a deviation from or a various of normal conditions
genes that always produce an effect
loss of uniformity of individual cells and their architectural orientation disordered growth or faulty development of various tissues or body parts
accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities
localized lymphatic obstruction resulting in localized edema
a study of determinants that is complied for a specific disease in a given population upon determining the type of neuroplastic involvement
study of the cause of the disease process
assessment of malignant tumor to determine the degree of aggressiveness or malignancy
fibrous scar replaces destroyed tissue combination of young developing capillaries and actively proliferating fibroblast producing connective tissue fibers
Travels by means of the bloodstream
accumulation of blood trapped within body tissues
the rupture of a blood vessel that allows blood to escape externally or internally, within surrounding tissues or a cavity.
result from an abnormality in the DNA Transmitted to offspring through genes pass from one generation to the next through the genetic information contained in the nucleus of each cell.
the genetic information contained in the nucleus of each cell passed to the Next Generation
heat and redness of the skin due to increased blood flow
abnormal increase in the number of cells composing a tissue or organ
increase in the size of cells of a tissue or organ in response to a demand for increased function
resulting from the activity of diagnosis or treatment by medical personnel
having an unknown cause for underlying disease
reaction of the body provides a powerful defense against invading organisms
a localized area of ischemic necrosis within a tissue or organ produced by occlusion either it's arterial supply or its venous drainage
the initial response of body tissue to local injury
lack of blood supply to an organ or tissue
the major metastatic route of carcinoma especially those of the lung and breast
neoplasm that invades and destroys adjacent structures and spread to distant sites
spread a disease to another organ or tissue in the body
the rate that an illness or abnormality occurs
the statistically expected death rate calculated by reviewing the population involved
alterations in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes
any new and abnormal growth especially when the growth is uncontrolled and progressive an abnormal proliferation of cells that are no longer controlled by the factors that govern the growth of normal cells.
incidences of infections being developed an acute care facility
the study of neoplasms
the study of diseases
membrane allowing fluid to pass through
allows fluids/cells to pass from one tissue to another tissue or location
gowns, gloves, mask, shoe covers, and eye protection used to prevent transmission of potential infectious agents
personal protective equipment
an expected patient outcome
bacteria that lead to the production of a thick yellow fluid called pus
genes that manifest themselves only when a person is homozygous for that trait
highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissues
measurable manifestations of a disorder objective manifestations(objective)
1. extensiveness of the tumor at the primary site 2. presence or absence of metastases to lymph nodes and distant organs determination of the amount of spread of neoplasm necessary to select appropriate therapy and to predict the future course of a disease
a set of infection control practices used to prevent transmission of diseases that can be acquired by contact with blood, body fluids, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes
subjective manifestations that patient feels(subjective)
a condition characterized by a group of signs, symptoms, and disease processes indicates the presence of combination of symptoms that commonly occur together and are related to a single cause
chemically altered toxin treated toxin with antigenic power to produce immunity by creating antibodies
additional protective equipment to prevent the spread of Highly infectious pathogens through contact, droplet, or airborne transmission
a low dose of a dead or deactivated bacteria or virus
what is the earliest bodily response to local injury?
dilation of arterioles, capillaries, and venules leading to a dramatic increase in blood flow in and around injury site
what causes swelling associated with inflammation?
As hyperemia develops, the venules and capillaries become abnormally permeable, allowing passage of protein-rich plasma across vessel walls into the interstitium. This inflammatory exudate in the tissues results in swelling associated with inflammation, which produces pressure on sensitive nerve endings and causes pain.
What are some causes of disease?
-Hereditary (genes) -Trauma -Infectious organisms -Vascular processes -Metabolic processes
what are the five clinical signs of inflammation?
-Rubor (redness) -Calor (heat) -Tumor (swelling) -Dolor (pain) -Loss of function
events that occur in inflammatory response
1) Alterations in blood flow and vascular permeability. 2) Migration of circulating white blood cells to the interstitium of the injured tissue. 3) Phagocytosis and enzymatic digestion of dead cells and tissue elements. 4) Repair of injury by regeneration of normal parenchymal cells or proliferation of granulation tissue and eventual scar formation.
what happens due to ischemia?
cells and tissues are deprived of oxygen and nutrients
what may ischemia be caused by?
-narrowing of an artery, as in atherosclerosis -thrombotic occlusion -embolic occlusion
After a stroke, what is the initial CT looking for? If nothing is seen on an initial CT after a stroke, what is assumed? Why is this important?
An initial CT is looking for a hemorrhagic stroke. if nothing is seen, it is assumed that an ischemic stroke has occurred. It is important to know if it is a hemorrhagic stroke, because the treatment for an ischemic stroke is blood thinners which would cause a patient to bleed out if they suffered a hemorrhagic stroke.
what does alteration of cell growth refer to?
Refers to the changes in the number and size of cells, their differentiation, and their arrangement.
what may cause alteration of cell growth to develop?
response to physiologic stimuli.
Three types of immune reactions:
-Anaphylactic -Cytotoxic reaction -Delayed
what should healthcare workers follow to provide protection for infectious disease exposure?
-Standard precautions from CDC -Use appropriate protective personnel equipment -Utilize transmission-based precautions
what are people with AIDS had a greater risk of?
Those affected are at greater risk for opportunistic infections.