Comprehensive Radiographic Pathology: Chapter 1: Introduction to Pathology Flashcards


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1

localized, usually encapsulated, collection of pus

abscess

2

impairment of cellular immunity most commonly affects young homosexual men and intravenous drug users

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

3

a person forms antibodies to counteract an antigen in the form of vaccine or toxoid

active immunity

4

hypersensitive reaction resulting in a histamine release, reactions are characterized by hypotension and vascular collapse (shock) with urticaria (hives), bronchiolar spasm, and laryngeal edema

anaphylactic

5

without form characterized by a loss of differentiation of cells and their orientation to one another; a characteristic of malignant tumors

anaplastic

6

generalized edema that occurs with pronounced swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body

anasarca

7

immunoglobulins responding to the antigens to make them harmless body's counteraction to control antigens

antibodies

8

a foreign substance that invokes an immune response body's ability to recognize foreign substances

antigens

9

a patient showing no evidence of diseases without subjective or objective manifestations

asymptomatic

10

reduction in the size or number of cells in an organ or tissue with a corresponding decreasing function diminished size due to wasting away

atrophy

11

44 of the chromosomes other than X and Y all chromosomes except gender

autosomes

12

bacteria spread through the circulatory system potential involvement of other organs and tissues in the body by organisms invading the blood vessels

bacteremia

13

tumors that closely resemble their cell of origin and structure and function and remain localized

benign

14

collectively malignant tumors

cancers

15

malignant neoplasm of epithelial cell origins

carcinoma

16

Infected by exposure in the public domain

community-acquired

17

either the antigen is a component of a cell or it attaches to the wall of the red blood cell, white blood cell, platelet, or vascular endothelial cells. This allergy involves antibodies that circulate in the blood and attack antigens (the drug) on cell sites, causing the death of that cell. This reaction is not immediate but may be seen over a few days. EX. wrong blood type is given to a patient

cytotoxin reaction

18

occurs in an individual previously sensitized to an antigen EX. the first time a person touches poison ivy, no reaction occurs. however, on the second exposure to poison ivy, antibodies are present to attack the antigen, and the patient develops a typical rash and irritation.

Delayed Reaction

19

identification of disease process the precise disease process affecting the patient

diagnosis

20

the pattern of a body's response to some form of injury that causes a deviation from or a various of normal conditions

disease

21

genes that always produce an effect

dominant

22

loss of uniformity of individual cells and their architectural orientation disordered growth or faulty development of various tissues or body parts

dysplasia

23

accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities

edema

24

localized lymphatic obstruction resulting in localized edema

elephantitis

25

a study of determinants that is complied for a specific disease in a given population upon determining the type of neuroplastic involvement

epidemiology

26

study of the cause of the disease process

Etiology

27

assessment of malignant tumor to determine the degree of aggressiveness or malignancy

grading

28

fibrous scar replaces destroyed tissue combination of young developing capillaries and actively proliferating fibroblast producing connective tissue fibers

granulation tissue

29

Travels by means of the bloodstream

hematogenous spread

30

accumulation of blood trapped within body tissues

hematoma

31

the rupture of a blood vessel that allows blood to escape externally or internally, within surrounding tissues or a cavity.

hemorrhage

32

result from an abnormality in the DNA Transmitted to offspring through genes pass from one generation to the next through the genetic information contained in the nucleus of each cell.

hereditary diseases

33

the genetic information contained in the nucleus of each cell passed to the Next Generation

hereditary process

34

heat and redness of the skin due to increased blood flow

hyperemia

35

abnormal increase in the number of cells composing a tissue or organ

hyperplasia

36

increase in the size of cells of a tissue or organ in response to a demand for increased function

hypertrophy

37

resulting from the activity of diagnosis or treatment by medical personnel

iatrogenic

38

having an unknown cause for underlying disease

idiopathic

39

reaction of the body provides a powerful defense against invading organisms

immune

40

a localized area of ischemic necrosis within a tissue or organ produced by occlusion either it's arterial supply or its venous drainage

infarct

41

the initial response of body tissue to local injury

inflammation

42

lack of blood supply to an organ or tissue

ischemia

43

the major metastatic route of carcinoma especially those of the lung and breast

lymphatic spread

44

neoplasm that invades and destroys adjacent structures and spread to distant sites

malignant

45

spread a disease to another organ or tissue in the body

metastasize

46

morbidity

the rate that an illness or abnormality occurs

47

the statistically expected death rate calculated by reviewing the population involved

mortality

48

alterations in the DNA structure that may become permanent hereditary changes

mutations

49

any new and abnormal growth especially when the growth is uncontrolled and progressive an abnormal proliferation of cells that are no longer controlled by the factors that govern the growth of normal cells.

neoplasia

50

incidences of infections being developed an acute care facility

nosocomial

51

the study of neoplasms

oncology

52

the study of diseases

pathology

53

membrane allowing fluid to pass through

permeable

54

allows fluids/cells to pass from one tissue to another tissue or location

permeable membrane

55

gowns, gloves, mask, shoe covers, and eye protection used to prevent transmission of potential infectious agents

personal protective equipment

56

an expected patient outcome

prognosis

57

bacteria that lead to the production of a thick yellow fluid called pus

pyogenic

58

genes that manifest themselves only when a person is homozygous for that trait

recessive

59

highly malignant tumors arising from connective tissues

sarcomas

60

measurable manifestations of a disorder objective manifestations(objective)

signs

61

1. extensiveness of the tumor at the primary site 2. presence or absence of metastases to lymph nodes and distant organs determination of the amount of spread of neoplasm necessary to select appropriate therapy and to predict the future course of a disease

staging

62

a set of infection control practices used to prevent transmission of diseases that can be acquired by contact with blood, body fluids, non-intact skin, and mucous membranes

standard precautions

63

subjective manifestations that patient feels(subjective)

symptoms

64

a condition characterized by a group of signs, symptoms, and disease processes indicates the presence of combination of symptoms that commonly occur together and are related to a single cause

syndrome

65

chemically altered toxin treated toxin with antigenic power to produce immunity by creating antibodies

Toxoid

66

additional protective equipment to prevent the spread of Highly infectious pathogens through contact, droplet, or airborne transmission

transmission-based precautions

67

without form

undifferentiated

68

a low dose of a dead or deactivated bacteria or virus

vaccine

69

what is the earliest bodily response to local injury?

dilation of arterioles, capillaries, and venules leading to a dramatic increase in blood flow in and around injury site

70

what causes swelling associated with inflammation?

As hyperemia develops, the venules and capillaries become abnormally permeable, allowing passage of protein-rich plasma across vessel walls into the interstitium. This inflammatory exudate in the tissues results in swelling associated with inflammation, which produces pressure on sensitive nerve endings and causes pain.

71

What are some causes of disease?

-Hereditary (genes) -Trauma -Infectious organisms -Vascular processes -Metabolic processes

72

what are the five clinical signs of inflammation?

-Rubor (redness) -Calor (heat) -Tumor (swelling) -Dolor (pain) -Loss of function

73

events that occur in inflammatory response

1) Alterations in blood flow and vascular permeability. 2) Migration of circulating white blood cells to the interstitium of the injured tissue. 3) Phagocytosis and enzymatic digestion of dead cells and tissue elements. 4) Repair of injury by regeneration of normal parenchymal cells or proliferation of granulation tissue and eventual scar formation.

74

what happens due to ischemia?

cells and tissues are deprived of oxygen and nutrients

75

what may ischemia be caused by?

-narrowing of an artery, as in atherosclerosis -thrombotic occlusion -embolic occlusion

76

After a stroke, what is the initial CT looking for? If nothing is seen on an initial CT after a stroke, what is assumed? Why is this important?

An initial CT is looking for a hemorrhagic stroke. if nothing is seen, it is assumed that an ischemic stroke has occurred. It is important to know if it is a hemorrhagic stroke, because the treatment for an ischemic stroke is blood thinners which would cause a patient to bleed out if they suffered a hemorrhagic stroke.

77

what does alteration of cell growth refer to?

Refers to the changes in the number and size of cells, their differentiation, and their arrangement.

78

what may cause alteration of cell growth to develop?

response to physiologic stimuli.

79

Three types of immune reactions:

-Anaphylactic -Cytotoxic reaction -Delayed

80

what should healthcare workers follow to provide protection for infectious disease exposure?

-Standard precautions from CDC -Use appropriate protective personnel equipment -Utilize transmission-based precautions

81

what are people with AIDS had a greater risk of?

Those affected are at greater risk for opportunistic infections.