dev. psych chapter 1& 2 terms

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1

development

long term changes in a persons growth, feelings, patterns of thinking, social relationships, and motor skills

2

lifespan development

the broad changes and continuities that constitute a person's identity and growth from birth to death

3

domain

a realm of psychological functioning

4

physical development

the area human development concerned primarily with physical changes such as growth, motor skill development, and basic aspects of perception

5

cognitive development

the area of human development concerned with cognitive; involves all psychological processes by which individuals learn and think about their environment

6

psychological development

the area of human development concerned primarily with personality, social knowledge and skills, and emotions

7

norms

behaviors typical at certain ages and of certain groups; standards of normal development

8

scientific methods

general procedures of study involving

  1. formulating research questions
  2. stating questions as a hypothesis
  3. testing the hypothesis
  4. interpreting and publicizing the results
9

independent variable

a factor that an experimenter manipulates (varies) to determine its influence on the population being studied

10

dependent variable

a factor that is measured in an experiment and that depends on, or is controlled by, one or more independent variables

11

random sample

in research studies, a group of individuals from a population chosen such that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

12

validity

the degree to which research findings measure or observe what is intended

13

experimental group

in an experimental research study, the group of participants who experience the experimental treatment while in other respects experiencing conditions similar or identical to those of the control group

14

control group

in an experimental research study, the group of participants who experience conditions similar or identical to the experimental group, but without experiencing the experimental treatment

15

quasi-experiments

experiments where participants cannot be randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups; instead, members of pre-existing groups are selected for comparison (for example, males versus females, young adults versus older adults, or private school students versus public school students)

16

cross sectional study

a study that compares individuals of different ages at the same point in time

17

longitudinal study

a study of the same individuals over a relatively long period, often months or years

18

sequential study

research in which atleast two cohorts are compared both with eachother and at different times

19

naturalistic study

a study in which behavior is observed in its natural study setting

20

correlation

an association between two variables in which changes in one variable tend to occur with changes in the other. the association does not necessarily imply a causal link between the variables

21

id

In Freud's theory, the part of an individual's personality that is present at birth, unconscious, impulsive, and unrealistic, and that attempts to satisfy a person's biological and emotional needs and desires by maximizing pleasure and avoiding pain

22

ego

according to freud, the rational, realistic part of the personality; coordinates impulses from the id with demands imposed by the super-ego and by society

23

super-ego

in freud's theory, the part of personality that acts as an all-knowing, internalized parent. it has two parts: the conscience, which enforces moral and social conventions by punishing violations with guilt; and the ego-ideal, which provides an idealized, internal set of standards for regulating and evaluating one's thoughts, feelings, and actions

24

attachment

an intimate and enduring emotional relationship between two people, such as infant and caregiver, characterized by reciprocal affection and a periodic desire to maintain physical closeness

25

classical conditioning

according to Pavlov, learning in which a neutral stimulus gains the power to bring about a certain response by repeated association with another stimulus that already elicits the same response

26

operant conditioning

according to Skinner, a process of learning in which a person or an animal increases the frequency of a behavior in response to repeated reinforcement of that behavior

27

reinforcement

according to Skinner, any stimulus that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in similar circumstances

28

punishment

according to Skinner, any stimulus that temporarily suppresses the responses that it follows

29

observational learning

the tendency of a child to imitate or model behavior and attitudes of parents and other individuals

30

behavior modification

a body of techniques based on behaviorism for changing or eliminating specific behaviors

31

scheme

according to Piaget. a behavior or thought that represents a group of ideas and events in a persons experience

32

assimilation

according to Piaget, a method by which a person responds to new experiences by using existing concepts to interpret new ideas and experiences

33

accommodation

according to Piaget, the process of modifying existing ideas or action-skills to fit new experiences

34

adaptation

Piaget's term for the process by which development occurs; concepts are deepened or broadened by assimilation and stretched or modified by accommodation

35

information-processing theory

explanations of cognition that focus on the precise, detailed features or steps of mental activities. these theories often use computers as models for human thinking

36

metacognition

knowledge and thinking about cognition, how learning and memory operate in everyday situations, and how one can improve cognitive performance

37

zone of proximal development

according to Vygotsky, the level of difficulty at which problems are too hard for children to solve alone but not too hard when given support from adults or more competent peers

38

social trajectory

the pathway or direction that development takes over an individuals life course, which is influenced by the school, work, family, and other important social settings in which he or she participates

39

normative-crisis model

explanations that view developmental change in terms of a series of distinct periods or stages that are influenced by physical and cognitive performance

40

timing of events model

explanations that view developmental change in terms of important life events such as marriage and parenthood that people are expected to complete according to a culturally determined time table