Pathology CH 4 skeletal system

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1

2 types of bones

Compact (outer)

Cancelous (inner)

2

2 types of bone cells

Osteoclasts

osteoblasts

3

Has characteristic of vertebrae on both sides of a major division of the spine

extra L-spine

Transitional Vertebra

4

What are the 6 cogenital/hereditary diseases of bone

Vertebral anomalies

spins bifida

osteopetrosis

osteogenesis imperfects

anchondroplasia

cogenital hip dysplasia

5

A spinal canal defect causes from failure of the posterior elements to fuse properly; splitting of the bony neural canal

Spina Bifida

6

Spina bifida/ large defects have complications of herniations

Meningocele

myelomeningocele

7

“Marble Bones”

failure of the resorptive mechanism of calcifies cartilage interferes with the normal replacement by mature bone

Osteopetrosis

8

“Brittle bone disease”

inherited generalized disorder of connective tissue characterized by multiple fractures and an unusual blue color of the normally white sclera of the eye

Osteogenesis imperfecta

9

How would osteogenesis imperfecta with less bone density affect technique

Use lower technique

10

Most common form of “dwarfism” it results from diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth plate

Achondroplasia

11

Results from incomplete acetabulum formation caused by physiologic and mechanical factors

Congenital hip dysplasia

12

A chronic disease that appears primarily as a non infectious inflammatory arthritis of the small joints of the hand and feet. Begins inflammation of the synovial joint

Rheumatoid Arthritis

13

Very commonly generalized disorder characterized by loss of joint cartilage and reactive new bone formation

Caused by wear and tear of aging

Osteoarthritis

(irregular narrowing of joint space with small bony spurs)

14

Caused by pyogenic (pus like) organisms

Infectious arthritis

15

Infectious arthritis most common type is migratory arthritis from??

Lyme disease

16

An inflammation of the small fluid filled sacs located near the joints that reduce the friction by movement

Bursitis

17

Things that cause bursitis

Repeated physical activity

trauma

rheumatoid arthritis

gout

infections

18

Modality of choice for bursitis

Ultrasound

19

An inflammation of the bone and marrow caused by a variety of infectious organisms

Bacterial osteomyelitis

20

“Potts disease”

affects??

Tuberculous osteomyelitis

21

Tuberculous osteomyelitis and Bacterial osteomyelitis modality of choice ??

Nuc Med

22

Severe loss of bone density; it’s caused include aging and postmenopausal normal changes

Osteoporosis

23

Insufficient mineralization of the adult skeleton; caused by inadequate intake or absorption of calcium and vitamin D

loss of bone density

osteomalacia

24

Systemic disease of infancy and childhood that is the equivalent of osteomalacia in adults lack of mineralization to immature skeleton

Rickets

25

A disorder in the metabolism of purine. Manifest as very painful arthritis that initially attacks a single joint (big toe)

Gout

26

Destruction of bone followed by a reparative process, results in weakened, deformed, and thickened bony structures that tend to fracture easily; pelvis, weight bearing bones, skull

Pavers disease

27

Characterized by the proliferation of fibrous tissue within the medullary cavity

Fibrous Dysplasia

28

Occurs due to a loss of blood; causes thrombosis, repeated trauma

Ischemia necrosis of bone

29

“Exostosis “

benign projection of bone with a cartilaginous cap that arises in childhood or the teen years

common near the ?

Osteochondroma

knee

30

Are low growing benign cartilaginous tumors arising in the medullary canal

primarily in small bones , hand and feet)

Enchondroma

31

Most often arise in the outer table of the skull, the paranasal sinuses and mandible

Osteoma

32

Typically images as a small round or oval lucent center surrounded by a large dense zone of thickening common in teenagers and young adults

Osteoid osteoma

33

“Unicameral”

a true fluid filled cyst with a wall of fibrous tissue occurs in proximal humorous or femur

Simple bone cyst

34

Consists of numerous blood filled, arteriovenous communications thought to be caused by trauma

Aneurysm am Bone cyst

35

Appears in every bone except the skull

Bone island

36

Generally occurs in the end of a long bone in the metaphysic (abt the knees) affects soft tissue

Osteogenic sarcoma

37

A malignant tumor of cartilaginous origin that may originate new or within preexisting lesion

occurs in long bones

originates in rib scapula vertebra

Chondrosarcoma

38

A primary malignant tumor arising in the bone marrow of long bones

occurs in children and young adults

rare over age 30

Ewing’s sarcoma

39

Associated with bone destruction , bone marrow failure, renal failure and recurrent infections

affects 40 and 70 year olds

Multiple Myeloma

40

Most common malignant bone tumor are?
modality of choice?

Bone metastases

carcinomas of the breast lung prostate kidney and thyroid

nuc med

41

Types of fractures

Complete vs incomplete

open vs closed

42

Results in two bone fragments

Complete

43

One side of bone cortex intact

Incomplete

44

Fracture with associated skin wound

Open

45

Fracture with skin intact

Closed

46

Response of bone to repeated stresses

Stress fracture

47

Fracture line that is horizontal to the long axis of the bone

Transverse

48

Small fragments pulled from bone by attached ligaments or tendons

Avulsion

49

Occurs in immature bone ; one side of cortex remains intact

Green stick

50

Compaction of one side of the cortex

Buckle ( torus)

51

Healing of fracture fragments in a faulty position

Malunion

52

Fracture that takes longer to heal that the average fracture at that anatomical location

Delayed union

53

Fracture healing process has completely stopped and the fragments remain in Ununited even with immobilization

Nonunion

54

Multiple , repeated , physically induced injuries in young children caused by guardians

also know as SNAT

AS RADIOGRAPHERS WE ARE OBLIGATED TO TELL AUTHORITIES

Battered-Child Syndrome

55

Transverse fracture through the distal radius with dorsal angulation

Coles

56

Transverse fracture of the neck of the 5th metacarpal with palmar angulation of the distal fragment

Boxers

57

Lunar shaft fracture associated with anterior dislocation of the radius at the elbow

Monteggia

58

Radial shaft fracture and a dorsal dislocation of the ulna at the wrist

Galeazzi

59

Fractures and dislocations of the spine are classified as ?

Stable

unstable

60

Comminuted fracture of c1

Jefferson

61

Most occur at base of dens

Odontoid fracture

62

Fracture of c2 arch with subluxation of c2-c3

Hangman’s

63

A twisting and curvature amid the vertebral column in the lateral perspective

Scoliosis

64

A cleft in the pars interarticulataris without displacement common site L5

Spondylolysis

65

The forward displacement of one vertebra on another

chronic back pain

Spondylolisthesis

66

Shaft of the long bone

Diaphysis

67

Fibrous membrane covering the outer surface

Periosteum

68

End of a long bone that at first is separated from the main part by cartilage but later fuses with it by ossification

Epiphyses

69

Inner membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone

Endosteum

70

Hollow , tube like structure within the diaphysis

Medullary cavity

71

Bone formation

Ossification

72

Bone destruction by osteoclasts

Resorption

73

Produce new bone around the outer circumstance from the periosteum

Osteoblasts

74

Enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity by removing bone from the diaphysis walls

Osteoclasts