M200 Chapter 8

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1

Where is all information stored?

In genome(DNA)

2

DNA

  • DNA holds all of the cellular potential
  • Genome replication necessary for cell division
  • When DNA changes à new abilities or loss of function
3

mRNA

messages that are sent to ribosomes from particular genes under different conditions

4

proteins

  • made in ribosomes from mRNA
  • changes to DNA often change protein function
5

DNA contains

  • paired bases on complementary strands that are replicated semi-conservatively
6

DNA

coding or copying only is 1 strand at a time

7

Transcription

making mRNA

8

mRNA

  • coding strand except w/ uracil
  • made from template strand
9

Translation

  • making protein from mRNA
10

Induction

turning on

11

Transcription & translation

  • occur simultaneously (in cytoplasm)
12

Repression

turning off or keeping off

13

Sensing environment

  • binding of substrate to certain proteins/enzymes/repressors
14

gene

unit of information encoded by DNA

• can be expressed to form an RNA product

15

gene expression

  • use of gene information to make mRNA and protein
16

genes

are conditionally expressed, not on all the time

17

How are genes named

by three lowercase letters and sometimes uppercase letters

18

plasmids

  • additional smaller pieces of DNA (“extrachromosomal”)
  • bacteria may lose this
19

Plasmid

provide antibiotic resistance

20

mutation

DNA base that gets passed on different from parent

21

Error rate in mutation

  • 1 in 10 million bp
22

DNA Replication

  • inherited from ‘parents
  • but DNA replication is never perfect.
23

DNA Replication

Bidirectional- split in 2 and copying

semiconservative- one strand is old and one is new

24

DNA Replication

  • 1-2 copies of the circular chromosome
  • Occurs during cell division
  • oriC (start), ter (end)
  • Multiple distinct steps: initiation, elongation, and termination
  • Accuracy must be checked
25

Semiconservative replication

  • Each daughter cell receives
    • 1 original (parental) strand
    • 1 newly synthesized strand
26

DNA polymerase

  • the enzyme that copies DNA
27

parental strands

  • The original strands are
28

Initiation

  • unwinding, priming, and loading of the DNA polymerase enzyme complex
29

Elongation

  • extension of DNA by adding deoxyribose nucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) with release of pyrophosphate, followed by proofreading
30

Termination

  • stopping replication; DNA helix is completely duplicated
31

DNA can only be synthesized

5' to 3' direction

32

Daughter strands

growing strands

33

Base pairing in DNA

A-T

G-C

34

lagging strand

made in little pieces at a time

35

Mutation

permanent

gets passed on

can be

  • harmful, beneficial, or neutral
36

Three DNA Bases is

A codon

37

silent mutation

nothing happens

38

missense mutation

based is changed

39

nonsense mutation

produce no amino acids

shut down

non-functional

40

Insertion/Deletion

ADD EXTRA BASES

involves the addition or subtraction of one or more nucleotides.

41

frameshift mutation

Shifts everything down

changes everything after it

42

What causes mutation?

  • A “mistake” by DNA polymerase that fails to be repaired (1/1000)
  • Physical agents
  • Chemical agents
43

codon

sequence of 3 bases that encodes an amino acid

44

RNA polymerase

  • complements a sequence of DNA to make RNA
45

RNA copy

  • transcription
46

RNA base pairing

T-U

G-C

47

Template strand

used to make mRNA

48

RNA polymerase

1. Find promoter
2. DNA “unzips” to reveal bases

starts pairing

3. Polymerase catalyzes addition of bases to mRNA