Chapter One: Types Of Microbes

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1

Bacteria

Bacterial Domain

  • Have cell wall of peptidoclycon
  • Unicellular(Single Celled)
  • Prokaryotes(Before Nucleus)
  • No Organelles
  • Divide via binary fission
  • Derive nutrition from organic or inorganic
    chemicals or photosynthesis
2

Archaea

Archea Domain

  • Single Celled
  • Prokaryotes(Before Nucleus)
  • No Peptidoclycon
  • Not pathogens
3

Archaea are divided into what three main groups?

  • Methanogens- produce methane as a waste product from respiration
  • Extreme Halophiles- live in extreme salty environments such as the Great Salt Lake and the dead sea
  • Extreme Thermophiles- live in hot sulfurous water, such as hot springs at yellowstone national park
4

Algae

  • Photosynthetic Eukaryotes
  • Wide variety of shapes
  • Both Asexual and sexual reproductive forms
  • Unicellular(single celled)
  • Cell wall composed of cellulose
  • Produces oxygen and carbohydrates
5

Fungi

  • Eukaryotes
  • Distinct nucleus
  • Chitin cell walls
  • Absorb organic chemicals for energy
  • Yeasts are unicellular
  • Molds and mushrooms are multicellular
  • Molds consist of masses of mycelia,(mostly found on bread and fruit) which are composed of filaments called hyphae
  • Can reproduce sexually or asexually
  • Can be tpxic
  • not pathogens
  • photosynthetic
6

Microorganisms are

are organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye

7

Microbes(Microorganisms) inculde

  • bacteria,
  • archaea
  • fungi,
  • protozoa
  • microscopic algae
  • viruses
  • Multi Cellular Animal Parasites
8

Bacteria were once classified

as plants, giving rise to the term flora for microbes

• This term has been replaced by microbiota

9

Microbes normally present in and on the human body are called

normal microbiota

10

Carolus Linnaeus established the system of

scientific nomenclature in 1735

11

Each organism has two names: the

genus and the specific epithet

• The genus is capitalized; the specific epithet is lowercase

12

Example of genus and the specific epithet:

Staphylococcus aureus

• Describes the clustered (staphylo-) spherical (coccus) cells
• Describes the gold-colored (aureus) colonies

13

Protozoa

  • Unicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • May be motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella
  • Free-living or parasitic (derive nutrients from a
    living host)
  • Can reproduce sexually or asexually
  • Absorb or ingest organic chemicals
14

Algae

• Eukaryotes
• Cellulose cell walls
• Found in freshwater, saltwater, and soil
• Use photosynthesis for energy
• Produce oxygen and carbohydrates

15

Viruses

  • Acellular(Not cells)
  • Basically DNA/RNA in protein container
  • So small can only be seen with an electron microscope
  • Can only reproduce by using the cellular machinery of other organisms
16

Animal Parasites

  • Multi-Cellular
  • Eukaryote
17

The two major groups of parasitic worms are the

Flatworms, and the roundworms.....Called helminths

18

Insects

Arthropods

  • Legs
  • Important carrier of disease
19

The system of nomenclature(naming) for organisms in use today was established in

1735 by Carolus Linnaeus

20

Classification of Microorganisms

Developed by

Carl Woese

21

Three domains based on genetic similarity

• Bacteria
• Archaea
• Eukarya
• Protists
• Fungi
• Plants
• Animals

22

Bacteria

  • Mitochondria
  • Proteobacteria
  • Gram-Positive bacteria
  • Thermotoga
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Chloroplasts
23

Archaea

  • Methanogens
  • Extreme Halophiles
  • Hyperthermophiles
24

Eukarya

  • Green algae
  • Plats
  • Slime Molds
  • Amebae
  • Fungi
  • Animals
  • Cliliates
  • Dinoflagellates
  • Diatoms
  • Euglenozoa
  • Giardia
25

1665: Robert Hooke reported that

living things are composed of little boxes, or "cells"

  • Marked the beginning of cell theory..ALL LIVING THINGS ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS
26

The first microbes were observed from 1623–1673 by

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

• "Animalcules" viewed through magnifying lenses

27

Spontaneous generation:

the hypothesis that life
arises from nonliving matter; a "vital force" is
necessary for life

28

Biogenesis:

the hypothesis that living cells arise
only from preexisting living cells

29

The Debate over Spontaneous Generation:

• 1668: Francesco Redi

filled jars with decaying meat

30

• 1765: Lazzaro Spallanzani

boiled nutrient solutions in sealed flasks

31

1861: Louis Pasteur

demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air

32

The Theory of Biogenesis

• Pasteur also used S-shaped flasks
• Keep microbes out but let air in
• Broth in flasks showed no signs of life
• Neck of flask traps microbes
• Microorganisms originate in air or fluids, not
mystical forces

33

The Golden Age of Microbiology

• 1857–1914
• Beginning with Pasteur's work, discoveries
included the relationship between microbes and
disease, immunity, and antimicrobial drugs

34

Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for

Fermentation is the microbial conversion of sugar
to alcohol in the absence of air

35

Microbial growth is responsible for

spoilage of food and beverages

36

Bacteria that use air spoil wine by turning it to

vinegar (acetic acid)

37

Pasteur demonstrated that

these spoilage bacteria could be killed by heat that was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine

Pasteurization is the application of a high heat for
a short time to kill harmful bacteria in beverages

38

Louis Pasteur 1822-1895

Demonstrated that life did not arise spontaneously from nonliving matter

39

• 1840s: Ignaz Semmelweis

advocated handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal
fever from one obstetrical patient to another

40

1860s: Applying Pasteur's work showing that microbes are

in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal diseases, Joseph Lister used a chemical antiseptic (phenol) to prevent surgical wound infections

41

Joseph Lister(1827-1912)

performed surgery under aseptic conditions using phenol. Proved that microbes caused surgical wound infections

42

• 1876: Robert Koch discovered that a bacterium
causes anthrax and provided the experimental
steps,

Koch's postulates, to demonstrate that a
specific microbe causes a specific disease

43

1796: Edward Jenner

inoculated a person with
cowpox virus, who was then immune from smallpox

44

Antibiotics

are chemicals produced by bacteria
and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes

45

1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the first

antibiotic (by accident)

46

Fleming observed that Penicillium

fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus

• 1940s: Penicillin was tested clinically and massproduced

47

Bacteriology

is the study of bacteria

48

Mycology

is the study of fungi

49

Parasitology

is the study of protozoa and parasitic worms

50

Microbial genetics:

the study of how microbes
inherit traits

51

Molecular biology

the study of how DNA directs
protein synthesis

52

• Genomics:

the study of an organism's genes; has
provided new tools for classifying microorganisms

53

Recombinant DNA:

DNA made from two different sources
• In the 1960s, Paul Berg inserted animal DNA into
bacterial DNA, and the bacteria produced an animal
protein

54

3 Branches of life

Archaea, Eubacteria, And Eukaryotes

55

Robert Hook

First to describe cell using microscope

56

Van Leeuwenhoek, Anton

Excellent lense maker

first to look at living cells

check cells, pond light

57

Schledien and Schwann

all living things consists of cells(CELL THEORY)

viruses or not cells, non living

58

Germ Theory

pathogen or germs can lead to disease

59

Spontaneous Generation

theory of living things derive from non-living material

EX arise from rotting meat

60

Red, Francesco

open flies

lid no flies

stopped essence from reaching meat

mesh covering air in, no flies

61

Tyndall

used heat boxes to show clust source of life

62

Pasteur, Louis

Swan Neck flask experiment

63

Cell theory

living things are made of cells

64

Biogenesis

living things arise by living things

65

Robert Koch

Developed many lab techniques we use

pure cultures, steak plates

66

4 Postulates

scientifically link disease with organism

organism must be found in every diseased organism (correlation)

obtain pure culture of organism (pathogen)

disease must arise in otherwise healthy organisms when inoculared with pathogen (causation)

pathogen must be found in every newly diagnosed organism (confirm)

67

Simmelweiss

wash hands between patients

68

Lister

Disinfectants on hands, equipment,entire surgical field

69

Genes/Genetics

study of one gene

70

Genomics

Study of all of your genes, study of infection

71

Virology

study of viruses

too small to see with light microscope

acellular only DNA/RNA in protein container

72

Mycology

Study of fungi (Yeast)

73

1665: Robert Hooke reported that

living things are
composed of little boxes, or "cells"
• Marked the beginning of cell theory: All living things are
composed of cells

74

The first microbes were observed from

1623–1673 by Anton van Leeuwenhoek
• "Animalcules" viewed through magnifying lenses