biology 240

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Describe how our food choices are affected by the flavor, texture, and appearance of food; routines and habits; early experiences and customs; advertising; nutrition and health concerns; restaurants; social changes; economics; and physiological processes affected by meal size and composition.

Flavor, texture, and appearance are the most important factors determining our food choices.

Early Experiences Parents can lay a strong foundation knowing that early exposure to food choices during infancy, toddler, and preschool years is important in influencing later health behaviors. Developing healthy patterns during childhood will go a long way

Routines and habits are tied to some food choices. Eating habits, food availability, and convenience strongly influence choices.

Marketing and advertising= are major tools for capturing the food interest of the consumer.

Restaurant dining plays a significant role in our food choices. Restaurant food is often calorie dense, in large portions, and of poorer nutritional quality compared to foods made at home.

Time and convenience Current lifestyles limit the time available for food preparation.

Cost and economics play a role in our food choices. The 2015 Food and Health Survey indicates that after taste, cost is the number two reason why people choose the food they do


What are enzymes?

a compound that speeds up the rate of chemical reaction, but is not altered by the reaction, almost all enzymes are proteins some are made of genetic material


Define the terms nutrition, carbohydrate, protein, lipid (fat), alcohol, vitamin, mineral, water, phytochemical, kilocalorie (kcal), and fiber.

Nutrition the scince that links foods to health and disease. It includes the processes by which the human organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, and excretes food substances.

Carbohydrate a compound containing a carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, most known as sugars, starches, and fibers.

protein-food and body compound made by 100 amino acids, contains nitrogen and is easily used by the body.

lipid- do not dissolve in water and contains cholesterol, fats, and oils.


mineral- Element used in the body to promote chemical reactions and promote body structures.

water- Universal solvent body is made up of 60% water, fluid needs are 9c in women and 13c in men per day, needs are greater if one exercises


kilocalorie=(kcal) those that primarily provide us with calories to meet energy needs (expressed in kilocalories [kcal])


Vitamin= an essential organic compound needed in small amounts in the body to help regulate chemical processes and reactions in the body


What is a bond

a linkage between two atoms formed by the sharing of electrons or attractions.


t/f carbohydrates provide the body with calories.



What are the 6 classes of nutrients? What are their roles / functions?

carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, and minerals and water,

Energy=carbs, proteins, lipids

growth, development & maintenance=proteins, lipids, some vitamins, some minerals and water.

Regulation of body processes=proteins, some lipids, some vitamin, some minerals and water.


What is fiber?

indigestible substances in plant food that add bulk to feces. fiber naturally found in food is called dietary fiber


what is the Kcal difference between one gram of fat and one gram of carbohydrate>

One gram of fat contains 9kcal and one gram of carbohydrate contains 4=5kcal difference is subtracted.


What influences our desire to eat?

Two drives, hunger and appetite, influence our desire to eat


Define hunger?

primarily our physical, biological drive to eat and is controlled by internal body mechanisms.


Define appetite

primarily psychological drive to eat, is affected by many of the external food choice mechanisms we discussed in the last section, such as environmental and psychological factors and social cues and customs


What is satiety

Fulfilling either or both drives by eating sufficient food normally ,a feeling of satisfaction that temporarily halts our desire to continue eating.


What are the factors that influence our food choices?

flavor texture and appearance, routines and habits, marketing and advertising


How do hunger and appetite differ in the way they influence our desire to eat?

hunger is physical

appetite is phychological


What factors influence satiety

the region in the brain also called the feeding center.


T/F Routines, habits economics and advertising all influence our food choices?



What is Nutrition

the science that links foods to health and disease. It includes the processes by which the human organism ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, and excretes food substances.


What is the difference between food and nutrients?

Food provides the energy (in the form of calories) as well as the materials needed to build and maintain all body cells

Nutrients are the substances obtained from food that are vital for growth and maintenance of a healthy body throughout life.


For a substance to be considered an essential nutrient, three characteristics are needed:

  • First, at least one specific biological function of the nutrient must be identified in the body.
  • Second, omission of the nutrient from the diet must lead to a decline in certain biological functions, such as production of blood cells.
  • Third, replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet before permanent damage occurs will restore those normal biological functions.

A poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle are known to be ------for life-threatening chronic diseases such as cardiovascular (heart) disease, hypertension, diabetes, and some forms of cancer.

risk factors


what is chronic disease

Long standing, developing over time a good example is cardiac disease, the disease process once developed is slow and lasting.


What have been some of the results of advertising

advertising is one of the factors that drives us to eat and effect our food choices.

advertising and marketing are one of the major tools for capturing the food interest of the consumer


Not meeting nutrient needs in younger years makes us more likely to suffer health consequences, such as bone fractures from the disease ----------in later years.



In addition--------- which the American Medical Association declared as a disease in 2013, is considered the second leading cause of preventable death in North America (smoking is the first.



three of the leading causes of death

heart disease, cancer, and stroke


the body can derive all its nutrient from

food and beverages


substances obtained from food that are vital for growth and maintenance of the body?



Six classes of nutrients are?

carbohydrates, lipids (fats and oils), proteins, vitamins, and minerals. These nutrients, plus water, make up the six classes of nutrients found in food.


What are the leading causes of death? Which are nutrition related?

heart disease, Cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease

Heart disease. cancer


What is the measurement we use for foods? Kcal or calorie?



Nutrients can then be assigned to three functional categories:

(1) those that primarily provide us with calories to meet energy needs (expressed in kilocalories [kcal]);

(2) those important for growth, development, and maintenance;

(3) those that act to keep body functions running smoothly.



The energy-yielding nutrients (carbohydrates, lipids, and protein) along with water are needed in relatively large amounts, so they are called macronutrients.

a nutrient needed in gram quantities in the diet.



Vitamins and minerals are needed in such small amounts in the diet


What are phytochemicals?

a chemical found in plants, may contribute to a reduced risk or cancer or cardiovascular disease in people who consume them regularly.