Human Growth and Development Study Guide1

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1

Scientific Methond

A way to answer questions using empirical research and data-based conclusions.

2

Empirical Evidence

Evidence that is based on observation experience, or experiment; not theoretical.

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Epigenetics

The study of how environmental factor affect genes and genetic expression enhancing, halting, shaping, or altering the expression of genes.

4

Sensitive Period

A time when a certain type of development is most likely, although it may still happen later with more difficulty. For ex: language learning is considered

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What is human growth and development?

Is a lifelong process of physical, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional growth and change.

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Ecological System Approach

A perspective on human development that considers all of the influences from the various context of development.(later rename biological theory)

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Cohert

People born in the same historical period who therefore move through life together, experiencing the events, new technologies, and cultural shifts at the same ages.

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Social Construction

An idea that is built on shared perceptions, not on objective reality.

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Independent Variable

In an experiment the variable that is introduced to see what effect is has on the dependent variable.

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Dependent Variable

In an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experiment adds.

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Cross Sectional Research

A research design that compare groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.

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Longitudinal Research

A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time, as their development is repeatedly assessed.

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Quantitative Research

Research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales.

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Qualitative Research

Research that considers qualities instead of quantities.

15

Correlation

A number between +1.0 and -1.0 that indicates the degree of relationship between two variables expressed in terms of the likelihood that one variable will or will not occur when the other variable does or not.

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Psychoanalytic Theory

A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underline human behavior.

17

Compare Freud and Erickson Ideas?

Freud's psychosexual theory emphasizes the importance of basic needs and biological forces, while Erikson's psychosocial theory is based upon social and environmental factors. Erikson also expands his theory into adulthood, while Freud's theory ends at an earlier period.

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Behaviorism Theory

A grand Theory of human development that studies observable behavior.(also called learning theory)

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Humanism Theory

A theory that stresses the potential of all humans for good and the beliefs that all people have the same basic needs, regardless culture, gender or background.

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Social Learning Theory

An extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.

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Assimilation

The reinterpretation of new experiences to fit into old ideas.

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Accommodation

The restructuring of old ideas to include new experiences.

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Zone of Proximal Development

In sociocultural theory; a metaphorical area or zone surrounding a learner that includes all of the skill, knowledge, and concepts that the person is close (proximal) to acquiring but cannot yet master without help.

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How many chromosomes do we have?

46 but each pairs normally contain 23

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What is the difference between a chromosome and a gene?

Chromosome makes up most cell in the body.

A gene is located on a chromosome. Every factor in inheritance is due to a particular gene. Genes specify the structure of particular proteins that make up each cell.

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Zygote

The single cell formed from the union of two gametes, a sperm and ovum.

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Genotype

An organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential.

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Phenotype

An organism is the composite of the organism's observable characteristics or traits

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Monozygotic Twins

Twin who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development.
(also called identical twins)

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Dizygotic Twin

Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time.(also called fraternal twin)

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Stages of Labor

  • Early Labor Phase –The time of the onset of labor until the cervix is dilated to 3 cm.
  • Active Labor Phase – Continues from 3 cm. until the cervix is dilated to 7 cm.
  • Transition Phase – Continues from 7 cm. until the cervix is fully dilated to 10 cm.
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Midwife and Doula

  • A doula provides support to the mother before, during, and shortly after childbirth, but does not deliver the baby.
  • A midwife may offer gynecological examinations, birth control counseling, prescriptions, and labor and delivery care.
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Epidural

a drug such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia or contrast agent is injected into the epidural space around the spinal cord.

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Induce Labour

Is the stimulation of uterine contractions during pregnancy before labor begins on its own to achieve a vaginal birth.

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Apgar Scale

A quick assessment of a newborn’s health from 0-10. Below 5 is an emergency-a neonatal paediatrician is summoned immediately. Most babies are between 7,8, or 9 never a perfect 10

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Teratogen

An agent or condition, including viruses, drugs, and chemical, that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death.

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Low Birthweight (LBW)

A body weight at birth of less then 2,500 grams (5 1/2 pounds)

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Small for Gestational Age (SGA)

A term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception.

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Newborn Reflexs

are involuntary movements that babies make when a part of their body is stimulated..

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Postpartum Depression

A new mother’s feelings of inadequacy and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth.

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Parent Infant Bonding

creates a strong positive, sensitive feeling between a parent and child.

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How long is the labor of first birth?

Active labour may take about eight hours. But It's unlikely to last more than 18 hours.

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Two growth Principles

The Cephalocaudal Principle, which states that growth begins with the brain and moves down the body, and the Proximodistal Principle, which states that growthbegins in the center of the body and moves outward.

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What are characteristics of newborns?

  • Soft spot: The anterior fontanel, a diamond-shaped soft area at the top of the skull.
  • Caput/Cephalohematoma: Fluid-filled swellings on the top of the scalp. ...
  • Ears: A pit or dimple in front of the ear is not uncommon.
  • Eyes: Eyelids may be swollen for the first three days.
  • Watery Eyes: This may be a blocked tear duct.