EXAM 1 CONCEPTS MULTIPLE CHOOICE 2 Flashcards


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1

Which scientific concept did Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace independently discover?

  1. mutation
  2. natural selection
  3. overbreeding
  4. sexual reproduction

B

2

Which of the following situations will lead to natural selection?

  1. The seeds of two plants land near each other and one grows larger than the other.
  2. Two types of fish eat the same kind of food, and one is better able to gather food than the other.
  3. Male lions compete for the right to mate with females, with only one possible winner.
  4. all of the above

D

3

What is the difference between micro- and macroevolution?

  1. Microevolution describes the evolution of small organisms, such as insects, while macroevolution describes the evolution of large organisms, like people and elephants.
  2. Microevolution describes the evolution of microscopic entities, such as molecules and proteins, while macroevolution describes the evolution of whole organisms.
  3. Microevolution describes the evolution of populations, while macroevolution describes the emergence of new species over long periods of time.
  4. Microevolution describes the evolution of organisms over their lifetimes, while macroevolution describes the evolution of organisms over multiple generations.

C

4

5.

Population genetics is the study of ________.

  1. how allele frequencies in a population change over time
  2. populations of cells in an individual
  3. the rate of population growth
  4. how genes affect embryological development

A

5

6.Galápagos medium ground finches are found on Santa Cruz and San Cristóbal islands, which are separated by about 100 km of ocean. Occasionally, individuals from either island fly to the other island to stay. This can alter the allele frequencies of the population through which of the following mechanisms?

  1. natural selection
  2. genetic drift
  3. gene flow
  4. mutation

C

6

7.In which of the following pairs do both evolutionary processes introduce new genetic variation into a population?

  1. natural selection and genetic drift
  2. mutation and gene flow
  3. natural selection and gene flow
  4. gene flow and genetic drift

B

7

8.The wing of a bird and the arm of a human are examples of ________.

  1. vestigial structures
  2. molecular structures
  3. homologous structures
  4. analogous structures

C

8

9.

The fact that DNA sequences are more similar in more closely related organisms is evidence of what?

  1. optimal design in organisms
  2. adaptation
  3. mutation
  4. descent with modification

D

9

10. Which situation would most likely lead to allopatric speciation?

  1. A flood causes the formation of a new lake.
  2. A storm causes several large trees to fall down.
  3. A mutation causes a new trait to develop.
  4. An injury causes an organism to seek out a new food source.

A

10

11.

What is the main difference between dispersal and vicariance?

  1. One leads to allopatric speciation, whereas the other leads to sympatric speciation.
  2. One involves the movement of the organism, whereas the other involves a change in the environment.
  3. One depends on a genetic mutation occurring, whereas the other does not.
  4. One involves closely related organisms, whereas the other involves only individuals of the same species.

D

11

12.

Which variable increases the likelihood of allopatric speciation taking place more quickly?

  1. lower rate of mutation
  2. longer distance between divided groups
  3. increased instances of hybrid formation
  4. equivalent numbers of individuals in each population

B

12

The word “theory” in theory of evolution is best replaced by ________.

  1. fact
  2. hypothesis
  3. idea
  4. alternate explanation

A

13

What is a phylogeny a description of?

  1. mutations
  2. DNA
  3. evolutionary history
  4. organisms on Earth

C

14

What do scientists in the field of systematics accomplish?

  1. discover new fossil sites
  2. organize and classify organisms
  3. name new species
  4. communicate between field biologists

B

15

Which statement about the taxonomic classification system is correct?

  1. There are more domains than kingdoms.
  2. Kingdoms are the top category of classification.
  3. A phylum may be represented in more than one kingdom.
  4. Species are the most specific category of classification.

D

16

Which best describes the relationship between chimpanzees and humans?

  1. chimpanzees evolved from humans
  2. humans evolved from chimpanzees
  3. chimpanzees and humans evolved from a common ancestor
  4. chimpanzees and humans belong to the same species

C

17

Which best describes a branch point in a phylogenetic tree?

  1. a hypothesis
  2. new lineage
  3. hybridization
  4. a mating

B

18

Which statement about analogies is correct?

  1. They occur only as errors.
  2. They are synonymous with homologous traits.
  3. They are derived by response to similar environmental pressures.
  4. They are a form of mutation.

C

19

What kind of trait is important to cladistics?

  1. shared derived traits
  2. shared ancestral traits
  3. analogous traits
  4. parsimonious traits

A

20

What is true about organisms that are a part of the same clade?

  1. They all share the same basic characteristics.
  2. They evolved from a shared ancestor.
  3. They all are on the same tree.
  4. They have identical phylogenies.

B

21

What is true about organisms that are a part of the same clade?

  1. They all share the same basic characteristics.
  2. They evolved from a shared ancestor.
  3. They all are on the same tree.
  4. They have identical phylogenies.

B

22

A monophyletic group is a ________.

  1. phylogenetic tree
  2. shared derived trait
  3. character state
  4. clade

D

23

The first forms of life on Earth were thought to be_______.

  1. single-celled plants
  2. prokaryotes
  3. insects
  4. large animals such as dinosaurs

B

24

The first organisms that oxygenated the atmosphere were _______.

  1. cyanobacteria
  2. phototrophic organisms
  3. anaerobic organisms
  4. all of the above

A

25

Which of the following consist of prokaryotic cells?

  1. bacteria and fungi
  2. archaea and fungi
  3. protists and animals
  4. bacteria and archaea

D

26

Prokaryotes stain as Gram-positive or Gram-negative because of differences in the _______.

  1. cell wall
  2. cytoplasm
  3. nucleus
  4. chromosome

A

27

Prokaryotes that obtain their energy from chemical compounds are called _____.

  1. phototrophs
  2. auxotrophs
  3. chemotrophs
  4. lithotrophs

C

28

Bioremediation includes _____.

  1. the use of prokaryotes that can fix nitrogen
  2. the use of prokaryotes to clean up pollutants
  3. the use of prokaryotes as natural fertilizers
  4. All of the above

B

29

What event is thought to have contributed to the evolution of eukaryotes?

  1. global warming
  2. glaciation
  3. volcanic activity
  4. oxygenation of the atmosphere

D

30

Mitochondria most likely evolved from _____________.

  1. a photosynthetic cyanobacterium
  2. cytoskeletal elements
  3. aerobic bacteria
  4. membrane proliferation

C

31

Protists with the capabilities to absorb nutrients from dead organisms are called_____________.

  1. photoautotrophs
  2. autotrophs
  3. saprobes
  4. heterotrophs

C

32

Which parasitic protist evades the host immune system by altering its surface proteins with each generation?

  1. Paramecium caudatum
  2. Trypanosoma brucei
  3. Plasmodium falciparum
  4. Phytophthora infestans

B

33

Which polysaccharide is usually found in the cell walls of fungi?

  1. starch
  2. glycogen
  3. chitin
  4. cellulose

C

34

.

What term describes the close association of a fungus with the root of a tree?

  1. a rhizoid
  2. a lichen
  3. a mycorrhiza
  4. an endophyte

C

35

The land plants are probably descendants of which of these groups?

  1. green algae
  2. red algae
  3. brown algae
  4. angiosperms

A

36

The event that leads from the haploid stage to the diploid stage in alternation of generations is ________.

  1. meiosis
  2. mitosis
  3. fertilization
  4. germination

C

37

Moss is an example of which type of plant?

  1. haplontic plant
  2. vascular plant
  3. diplontic plant
  4. seed plant

A

38

Why do mosses grow well in the Arctic tundra?

  1. They grow better at cold temperatures.
  2. They do not require moisture.
  3. They do not have true roots and can grow on hard surfaces.
  4. There are no herbivores in the tundra.

C

39

Which is the most diverse group of seedless vascular plants?

  1. the liverworts
  2. the horsetails
  3. the club mosses
  4. the ferns

D

40

Which group are vascular plants?

  1. liverworts
  2. mosses
  3. hornworts
  4. ferns

D

41

Which of the following traits characterizes gymnosperms?

  1. The plants carry exposed seeds on modified leaves.
  2. Reproductive structures are located in a flower.
  3. After fertilization, the ovary thickens and forms a fruit.
  4. The gametophyte is longest phase of the life cycle.

A

42

What adaptation do seed plants have in addition to the seed that is not found in seedless plants?

  1. gametophytes
  2. vascular tissue
  3. pollen
  4. chlorophyll

C

43

Pollen grains develop in which structure?

  1. the anther
  2. the stigma
  3. the filament
  4. the carpel

A

44

Corn develops from a seedling with a single cotyledon, displays parallel veins on its leaves, and produces monosulcate pollen. It is most likely:

  1. a gymnosperm
  2. a monocot
  3. a eudicot
  4. a basal angiosperm

B