chapter 24 Flashcards


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1

Much of the investment funds that enabled America to industrialize in the late nineteenth century came
from
a
.
surplus wealth generated by agriculture.
b
.
the state governments.
c
.
private foreign investors.
d
.
individual Americans' savings.
e
.
the sale of confiscated Confederate land and property.

C

2

The national government helped to finance transcontinental railroad construction in the late nineteenth
century by providing railroad corporations with
a
.
cash grants from new taxes.
b
.
land grants and loans.
c
.
cash grants from higher tariffs.
d
.
reduced prices for iron and steel.
e
.
aid for construction of railroad stations.

B

3

Match each railroad company below with the correct entrepreneur.
A
.
James J. Hill 1. Central Pacific
B. Cornelius Vanderbilt 2. New York Central
C. Leland Stanford 3. Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe

4. Great Northern

a
.
A-4, B-2, C-1
b
.
A-3, B-4, C-2
c
.
A-2, B-1, C-3
d
.
A-4, B-3, C-1
e
.
A-1, B-3, C-4

A

4

The only transcontinental railroad built without government aid was the
a
.
New York Central.
b
.
Northern Pacific.
c
.
Union Pacific.
d
.
Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe.
e
.
Great Northern.

E

5

The greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network was that it
a
.
spread the U.S. population across the whole continent.
b
.
enabled people from farms and small towns to visit the big cities.
c
.
united the nation into a single, integrated national market.
d
.
made it possible for some immigrants to settle in the West.
e
.
developed a skilled industrial workforce.

C

6

The greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post-Civil War years was
a
.
agriculture.
b
.
mining.
c
.
the steel industry.
d
.
electric power.
e
.
the railroad network.

E

7

The United States changed to standard time zones when
a
.
Congress passed a law establishing this system.
b
.
the major rail lines decreed common fixed times so that they could keep schedules and
avoid wrecks.
c
.
factories demanded standard time schedules.
d
.
long-distance telephones required standard time coordination.
e
.
All of these

B

8

Which of the following was not among the technological improvements that made the modern
transcontinental railroad network possible?
a
.
Steel rails
b
.
Air brakes
c
.
Standard gauge tracks
d
.
The block signal
e
.
The caboose

E

9

The two industries that the transcontinental railroads most significantly expanded were
a
.
textiles and shoemaking.
b
.
mining and agriculture.
c
.
banking and real estate.
d
.
shipping and fishing.
e
.
electricity and telecommunications.

B

10

Agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits
were called
a
.
pools.
b
.
trusts.
c
.
rebates.
d
.
interlocking directorates.
e
.
holding companies.

A

11

Which of the following was not among the common forms of corruption practiced by the wealthy
railroad barons?
a
.
Bribing judges and state legislatures
b Forcing their employees to buy railroad company stock

.
c
.
Providing free railroad passes to journalists and politicians
d
.
Watering railroad stocks and bonds in order to sell them at inflated prices
e
.
Receiving kickbacks from powerful shippers

B

12

In the case of Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois, the U.S. Supreme Court
held that state legislatures could not regulate railroads because
a
.
the U.S. Constitution did not permit the government to regulate private industry.
b
.
the state legislatures were acting on behalf of a private interest, Illinois farmers.
c
.
the Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad was incorporated in Missouri, not Illinois.
d
.
railroad executives had committed no illegal acts in their business.
e
.
railroads were interstate businesses and could not be regulated by any single state.

E

13

Efforts to regulate the monopolizing practices of railroad corporations first came in the form of action
by
a
.
Congress.
b
.
the Supreme Court.
c
.
private lawsuits charging unfair competition.
d
.
President Cleveland.
e
.
state legislatures.

E

14

The first federal regulatory agency designed to protect the public interest from business combinations
was the
a
.
Federal Trade Commission.
b
.
Interstate Commerce Commission.
c
.
Consumer Affairs Commission.
d
.
Federal Anti-Trust Commission.
e
.
Federal Communications Commission.

B

15

Among the countries that provided the largest amounts of foreign capital investment in American
industry were
a
.
Sweden, Denmark, and Norway.
b
.
Italy, Spain, and Greece.
c
.
Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.
d
.
Britain, France, and the Netherlands.
e
.
Canada and Mexico.

D

16

When Europeans owned or invested in private companies in the United States, they generally
a
.
appointed European managers to key positions in the company.
b
.
let Americans manage the business unless there was an economic crisis.
c
.
made American banks issue regular reports on the profitability of their companies.
d
.
steered most of the profits back into European investments.
e
.
insisted that the companies hire a portion of immigrants from the nation owning the
company.

B

17

The single largest source of a critical raw material that fueled early American industrialization was the
a
.
copper mines of Montana and Arizona.
b
.
oil wells of Oklahoma and Texas.
c
.
lead mines of Wisconsin.
d
.
coal mines of Kansas and Nebraska.
e
.
Mesabi iron range of Minnesota.

E

18

Which of the following was not among the critical U.S. raw materials, delivered by railroads to
factories, that fueled early American industrialization?
a
.
Rubber
b
.
Iron
c Coal

.
d
.
Copper
e
.
Oil

A

19

The vast, integrated, continental U.S. market greatly enhanced the American inclination toward
a
.
selling goods far away from their point of manufacture.
b
.
specialized goods produced by skilled labor.
c
.
government certification and regulation of consumer products.
d
.
mass manufacturing of standardized industrial products.
e
.
importing raw materials from overseas.

D

20

The American system of mass manufacture of standardized, interchangeable parts provided strong
incentives for U.S. capitalists to
a
.
invest in training for their workforce.
b
.
hire American workers rather than foreign immigrants.
c
.
replace skilled labor with machinery.
d
.
build extremely large factories in dedicated industrial districts.
e
.
pay higher wages to retain a steady workforce.

C

21

The major incentive that drove captains of industry to invent machines was
a
.
lucrative government grants that were offered to would-be inventors.
b
.
a chance to strike it rich via technological innovation.
c
.
that machines would enable them to replace expensive skilled workers with cheap
unskilled workers.
d
.
that machines could do the work five times faster than humans did.
e
.
None of these

C

22

Two technological innovations that greatly expanded the industrial employment of women in the late
nineteenth century were the
a
.
typewriter and the telephone.

b
.
electric light and the phonograph.
c
.
Bessemer steel process and the internal combustion engine.
d
.
streetcar and the bicycle.
e
.
electric refrigerator and stove.

A

23

Which of the following was not among the technologies invented or improved by Thomas A. Edison?
a
.
The electric light bulb
b
.
The phonograph
c
.
The mimeograph
d
.
The electric dynamo
e
.
The motion picture

D

24

One of the methods by which post-Civil War business leaders increased their profits was
a
.
increased competition.
b
.
supporting a centrally planned economy.
c
.
funding research on new technologies.
d
.
elimination of the tactic of vertical integration.
e
.
elimination of as much competition as possible.

E

25

Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified.
A
.
Andrew Carnegie 1. interlocking directorate
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. trust
C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. vertical integration

4. pool

a
.
A-2, B-4, C-1
b
.
A-3, B-2, C-4
c
.
A-3, B-2, C-1
d
.
A-1, B-3, C-2

e
.
A-4, B-1, C-3

C

26

Match each entrepreneur below with the field of enterprise with which he is historically identified.
A
.
Andrew Carnegie 1. steel
B. John D. Rockefeller 2. oil
C. J. Pierpont Morgan 3. tobacco
D
.
James Duke 4. banking

a
.
A-1, B-3, C-2, D-4
b
.
A-2, B-4, C-3, D-1
c
.
A-3, B-1, C-4, D-2
d
.
A-1, B-2, C-4, D-3
e
.
A-4, B-2, C-1, D-3

D

27

Andrew Carnegie's system of vertical integration
a
.
combined all facets of an industry, from raw material to final product, within a single
company.
b
.
created an industrial association through which member companies could wield much
power.
c
.
embraced the notion of buying up competitors and forming a monopoly interest.
d
.
required smaller competitors to agree to standardized rates set by larger firms.
e
.
None of these

A

28

John D. Rockefeller's organizational technique of horizontal integration involved
a
.
franchising Standard Oil gasoline stations to independent operators.
b
.
controlling all phases of the oil industry from drilling to commercial retailing.
c
.
creating standardized job assignments and fixed production and sales quotas for all
employees.
d
.
forcing small competitors to assign stock to Standard oil or lose their business.
e
.
developing multiple uses for oil in transportation, lighting, and industry.

D

29

The steel industry owed much to the inventive genius of
a
.
Jay Gould.
b
.
Henry Bessemer.
c
.
John P. Altgeld.
d
.
Thomas Edison.
e
.
Alexander Graham Bell.

B

30

J.P. Morgan undermined competition by placing officers of his bank on the boards of supposedly
independent companies that he wanted to control. This method was known as a(n)
a
.
interlocking directorates
b
.
trust.
c
.
vertical integration.
d
.
pool.
e
.
holding company.

A

31

America's first billion-dollar corporation was
a
.
General Electric (GE).
b
.
Standard Oil.
c
.
American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T).
d
.
The Union Pacific Railroad.
e
.
United States Steel.

E

32

The first major product of the oil industry was
a
.
kerosene.
b
.
gasoline.
c
.
lighter fluid.
d
.
natural gas.
e heating oil.

A

33

The oil industry became a huge business
a
.
with the building of kerosene-fueled electric generators.
b
.
when the federal government granted a monopoly to Standard Oil.
c
.
with the invention of the internal combustion engine.
d
.
when diesel engines were perfected.
e
.
when oil was discovered in Texas.

C

34

John D. Rockefeller used all of the following tactics to achieve his domination of the oil industry
except
a
.
employing spies.
b
.
extorting rebates from railroads.
c
.
using federal agents to break his competitors.
d
.
pursuing a policy of rule or ruin.
e
.
using high-pressure sales methods.

C

35

The "Gospel of Wealth" endorsed by Andrew Carnegie
a
.
based its theology on the teachings of Jesus.
b
.
held that the wealthy should display moral responsibility in the use of their God-given
money.
c
.
stimulated efforts to help minorities.
d
.
was opposed by most late nineteenth century clergymen.
e
.
asserted that the more people prayed the better off they would become.

B

36

Although they were commonly called "Social Darwinists" advocates of economic, national, or racial
"survival of the fittest" ideas actually drew less on biologist Charles Darwin than on
a
.
British laissez-faire economists like Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo.
b
.
German philosophers like G.W.F. Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche.
c
.
American literary figures like Jack London and Theodore Dreiser.

d
.
European scientists like Gregor Mendel and Louis Pasteur.
e
.
racist theorists like Arthur Gobineau and Houston Stewart Chamberlain.

A

37

Believers in the doctrine of "survival of the fittest" like Herbert Spencer and William Graham
Sumner, argued that
a
.
only a few large corporations were fit to survive in the industrial jungle.
b
.
society owed a basic standard of living to even its weakest members.
c
.
there should be eugenic biological breeding to produce a superior human race.
d
.
fitness to survive and thrive could be proven through physical competition.
e
.
the wealthy deserved their riches because they had demonstrated greater abilities than the
poor.

E

38

To help corporations, the courts ingeniously interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment, which was
designed to protect the rights of ex-slaves, so as to
a
.
help freedmen to work in factories.
b
.
incorporate big businesses.
c
.
allow the captains of industry to avoid paying taxes.
d
.
avoid corporate regulation by the states.
e
.
protect the civil rights of business people.

D

39

The ____ Amendment was especially helpful to giant corporations when defending themselves against
regulation by state governments.
a
.
Fifth
b
.
Fourteenth
c
.
Fifteenth
d
.
Sixteenth
e
.
Seventeenth

B

40

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act prohibited
a
.
companies from signing contracts without competitive bidding.

b
.
the federal government from favoring one business corporation over another.
c
.
the same corporation from doing business under different names.
d
.
private corporations or organizations from engaging in "combinations in restraint of
trade"

e
.
competing companies from having interlocking corporate boards of directors.

D

41

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was at first primarily used to curb the power of
a
.
manufacturing corporations.
b
.
labor unions.
c
.
state legislatures.
d
.
railroad corporations.
e
.
banking syndicates.

B

42

During the age of industrialization, the South
a
.
took full advantage of the new economic trends.
b
.
received preferential treatment from the railroads.
c
.
turned away from agriculture.
d
.
held to its Old South ideology.
e
.
remained overwhelmingly rural and agricultural.

E

43

The South's major attraction for potential investors was
a
.
readily available raw materials.
b
.
a warm climate.
c
.
good transportation.
d
.
cheap labor.
e
.
ethnic diversity.

D

44

In the late nineteenth century, tax and other benefits especially attracted ____ manufacturing to the
new South.
a
.
textile
b
.
steel
c
.
machine tool
d
.
electrical appliance
e
.
farm equipment

A

45

The largest southern-based monopolistic corporation was the one founded by James Duke to produce
a
.
steel.
b
.
oil.
c
.
textiles.
d
.
cigarettes.
e
.
Coca-Cola.

D

46

Many southerners saw employment in the textile mills as
a
.
high-wage positions.
b
.
unacceptable.
c
.
a poor alternative to farming.
d
.
institutions that broke up families.
e
.
the only steady jobs and wages available.

E

47

In the textiles mills of the industrializing South, all of the following are true statements except
a
.
rural black and white southerners landed plumb jobs in the new mills.
b
.
entire families worked long hours in the mills.
c
.
most workers were paid half the rate received by northern workers for the same tasks.
d
.
payment was typically made in credit to the company store.
e workers were called "hillbillies" or "lintheads" by employers.

A

48

One of the greatest changes that industrialization brought about in the lives of workers was
a
.
their movement to the suburbs.
b
.
the need for them to adjust their lives to the time clock.
c
.
the opportunity to relearn the ideals of Thomas Jefferson.
d
.
the narrowing of class divisions.
e
.
the encounter with other races.

B

49

The group whose lives were most dramatically altered by the new industrial age was
a
.
Native Americans.
b
.
African Americans.
c
.
women.
d
.
southerners.
e
.
small town residents.

C

50

Despite generally rising wages in the late nineteenth century, industrial workers were extremely
vulnerable to all of the following except
a
.
economic swings and depressions.
b
.
employers' whims.
c
.
new educational requirements for jobs.
d
.
sudden unemployment.
e
.
illness and accident.

C

51

The image of the "Gibson Girl" represented a(n)
a
.
revival of the early American feminine ideal of republican motherhood.
b
.
portrayal of the modern corporate business woman.
c
.
exploitative image of the woman as a sex object.

d
.
romantic ideal of the independent and athletic new woman.
e
.
sentimental image of a woman as mother.

D

52

Most women workers of the 1890s worked for
a
.
independence.
b
.
glamour.
c
.
economic necessity.
d
.
retirement savings.
e
.
personal spending money.

C

53

Women were drawn into industry by
a
.
the promise of wages on par with those of men.
b
.
inventions like the typewriter and telephone switchboard.
c
.
economic downturns, which hit rural families hardest.
d
.
the lure of city life.
e
.
All of these

B

54

Reformers' efforts to raise public awareness about the hazards of child labor
a
.
made progress with the help of photography.
b
.
pertained only to native born children.
c
.
were focused primarily on the plight of new immigrants.
d
.
focused on blacklisting the most abusive companies.
e
.
None of these

A

55

Which one of the following is least like the other four?
a
.
Closed shop
b
.
Lockout

c
.
Yellow dog contract
d
.
Blacklist
e
.
Company town

A

56

Generally, the Supreme Court in the late nineteenth century interpreted the Constitution in such a way
as to favor
a
.
labor unions.
b
.
corporations.
c
.
state regulatory agencies.
d
.
individual entrepreneurs.
e
.
independent workers and craftsmen.

B

57

Match each labor organization below with the correct description.
A
.
National Labor Union 1. the "one big union" that championed producer
cooperatives and industrial arbitration

B. Knights of Labor 2. a social-reform union killed by the depression of the

1870s

C. American Federation of
Labor

3. an association of unions pursuing higher wages, shorter
working hours, and better working conditions

a
.
A-3, B-1, C-2
b
.
A-3, B-2, C-1
c
.
A-1, B-2, C-3
d
.
A-1, B-3, C-2
e
.
A-2, B-1, C-3

E

58

In its efforts on behalf of workers, the National Labor Union won
a
.
an eight-hour day for all workers.
b
.
government arbitration for industrial disputes.
c
.
equal pay for women.
d
.
an eight-hour day for government workers.

e
.
the right to collective bargaining.

D

59

One group, barred from membership in the Knights of Labor, was
a
.
African Americans.
b
.
nonproducers.
c
.
women.
d
.
Irish.
e
.
social reformers.

B

60

The Knights of Labor believed that conflict between capital and labor would disappear when
a
.
the government owned the means of production.
b
.
labor controlled the government.
c
.
workers accepted the concept of craft unions.
d
.
business would understand the principles of social justice.
e
.
labor would own and operate businesses and industries.

E

61

The Knights of Labor believed that republican traditions and institutions could be preserved from
corrupt monopolies
a
.
when American workers achieved a greater degree of class consciousness.
b
.
by strengthening the economic and political independence of the workers.
c
.
through the destruction of the American Federation of Labor.
d
.
by the development of strong craft unions.
e
.
by forming an independent political movement.

B

62

One of the major reasons the Knights of Labor failed was its
a
.
racial exclusiveness.
b
.
support of skilled workers.
c failure to admit women to its ranks.

.
d
.
abandonment of the concept of independent producers.
e
.
lack of class consciousness.

E

63

The most effective and most enduring labor union of the post-Civil War period was the
a
.
National Labor Union.
b
.
Knights of Labor.
c
.
American Federation of Labor.
d
.
Knights of Columbus.
e
.
Congress of Industrial Organizations.

C

64

By 1900, American attitudes toward labor began to change as the public came to recognize the right of
workers to bargain collectively and strike. Nevertheless
a
.
labor unions continued to decline in membership.
b
.
the American Federation of Labor failed to take advantage of the situation.
c
.
the vast majority of employers continued to fight organized labor.
d
.
Congress declared the AFL illegal.
e
.
workers began to turn to the Socialist party.

C

65

The people who found fault with the captains of industry mostly argued that these men
a
.
had no real business ability.
b
.
built their corporate wealth and power by exploiting workers.
c
.
tried to take the United States back to an earlier age of aristocracy.
d
.
were environmentally insensitive.
e
.
slowed technological advances.

B

66

Even historians critical of the captains of industry and capitalism, generally concede that class-based
protest has never been a powerful force in the United States because
a
.
most employers tried to treat their workers well.

b
.
few Europeans brought their political philosophies to the United States.
c
.
the captains of industry did not allow protest to take root.
d
.
many Americans inherited fortunes.
e
.
America has greater social mobility than Europe has.

E

67

All of the following were important factors in post-Civil War industrial expansion except
a
.
a large pool of unskilled labor.
b
.
an abundance of natural resources.
c
.
American ingenuity and inventiveness.
d
.
immigration restrictions.
e
.
a political climate favoring business.

D