More college students than in past generations __________.
C) change majors as they explore career options
Barry, a 21-year-old college student, has spent a lot of time
exploring the breadth of his career options
and has not yet made a commitment to a major. Johanna, age 20, committed to an engineering
D) Johanna scores higher than Barry in emotional and social adjustment.
Today’s emerging adults __________.
B) have a stronger pluralistic orientation than young people in previous generations
Which of the following 22-year-olds is the most likely to experience emerging adulthood?
B) Percy, a high-SES male in the United Kingdom
Which statement accurately reflects a criticism of the concept of emerging adulthood?
A) The term emerging adulthood fails to describe the experience of most of the world’s youths.
__________ parenting in particular is linked to emerging adults’ psychological well-being.
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of early adulthood is __________.
D) intimacy versus isolation
Erikson believed that successful resolution of intimacy versus isolation prepares the individual for the middle adulthood stage, which focuses on __________.
According to Levinson, of the many components of the __________,
usually only a few, relating to
family, close friendships, and occupation, are central.
D) life structure
Levinson found that during the transition to early adulthood, most young people __________.
B) constructed a dream that guided their decision making
According to Levinson, which statement about gender differences in dreams is true?
D) Most career-oriented women have “split dreams” involving both marriage and career.
When Paul started his job, he developed a close relationship with
Richard, a senior colleague. Richard
helped Paul succeed in his job, and with Richard’s help, Paul was quickly promoted. According to
Levinson, Richard __________.
C) acted as a mentor to Paul
According to Levinson, a second transition occurs around age __________.
According to Vaillant, men focus on __________ in their twenties.
A) intimacy concerns
According to Vaillant, men become “keepers of meaning,” or guardians
of their culture, in their
C) fifties and sixties
Among economically better-off young people, __________ occurs much
__________ in the lifespan
than it did a generation or two ago.
C) marrying; later
Following a social clock of some kind seems to foster __________.
D) social stability
Which statement is true about mate selection?
B) Little support exists for the idea that “opposites attract.”
Robert Sternberg’s triangular theory of love identifies __________ as
three components that shift in
emphasis as romantic relationships develop.
A) passion, intimacy, and commitment
__________ love is strong at the beginning of a relationship.
Adrian developed a secure attachment to his parents when he was a
child. Adrian probably
characterizes his most important adult love relationship in terms of __________.
D) trust, happiness, and friendship
Gloria’s marriage was riddled with jealousy, emotional highs and
lows, and desperation about whether
her husband returned her affection. Though she offered support to her husband, Gloria did so in ways that
poorly fit his needs. Based on this information, it is likely that Gloria has a(n) __________ attachment
Sal and Sadie have been married for 40 years. When asked to compare
their current relationship to
when they were newlyweds, they are most likely to say that __________.
B) they love each other more now than they did earlier
In the transformation from a passionate to a companionate and
compassionate bond, __________ may
be the aspect of love that determines whether a relationship survives.
Compared with women, men __________.
C) offer less helpful support in their close relationships
Which individual is the most likely to report lower-quality and less enduring love relationships?
D) Lionel, a gay man who harbors negative feelings toward homosexuals
Which statement is true about perceptions of intimate relationships in Eastern cultures?
D) In choosing a lifelong partner, young people are expected to consider obligations to others.
College students of Asian heritage are more likely than their Western
counterparts to endorse a view
of love strongly based on __________.
In interviews with arranged-marriage couples from diverse countries
who reported that their love
gradually grew over time, the contributing factor most often mentioned was __________.
Adult friends are usually __________.
D) similar in age, sex, and SES
Compared to shorter-term relationships, men in longer lasting friendships __________.
C) disclose more personal information to one another
Which statement is true about same-sex friendships?
A) Women generally evaluate same-sex friendships more positively than men do.
As young adults develop romantic ties and marry, __________.
B) they direct more of their disclosures toward their partners
From the college years through career exploration and settling into work roles, __________.
A) other-sex friendships increase
After marriage, other-sex friendships __________.
C) continue to increase for women
Which individual probably has the highest number of other-sex friends?
B) Melina, an employed female chemist
Which siblings are most likely to become more frequent companions as they get older and marry?
D) sisters Navaeh and Jada
In families with five to ten siblings, __________.
C) close sibling bonds may replace friendships
Emma left home to attend college and lived on her own until she got
married. As her own children
grew up and left home, Emma’s parenting responsibilities declined. She eventually retired and her
husband died. This series of phases that Emma has experienced is referred to as the __________.
A) family life cycle
Within the family life cycle, stress tends to be greatest __________.
D) during transitions between phases
Which statement is true about the family life cycle?
D) Some people do not experience all family life-cycle phases.
In the United States today, the average age of leaving home __________.
A) resembles the departure age at the beginning of the twentieth century
Typical young adults living at home in the United States today __________.
B) are financially dependent on their parents
Which individual is the most likely to establish early residential independence?
C) Makayla, whose parents are divorced and combative
__________ of U.S. 18- to 25-year-olds return to their parents’ home
for brief periods after first
B) Slightly over half
Which young adult is more likely to live on her own?
C) Julia, a well-off European American
Leaving home very early is associated with __________.
D) less successful educational lives
Just 16 percent of contemporary U.S. 18- to 29-year-olds __________.
C) are married
Which statement is true about attitudes regarding marriage in the United States today?
C) Most U.S. unmarried young adults say they want to marry and have children.
At present, 49 percent of U.S. adults __________.
A) live together as married couples
__________ young adults are more likely than their counterparts to
marry partners of another race or
C) Highly educated
__________ is the most consistent predictor of marital stability.
B) Age at marriage
Mike and Carol are married. Mike is the head of the household. He
works outside the home as an
architect. Carol devotes herself to caring for Mike and their children and creating a comfortable home.
They have a(n) __________ marriage.
In egalitarian marriages, __________.
B) partners share power and authority
Most well-educated, career-oriented women expect a(n) __________ marriage.
Americans Faye and Max met in graduate school and married after they
both graduated. They both
work full-time. Which of the following is most likely true?
D) Max puts in about 60 percent of weekly child-care hours that Faye does.
Which couple is the most likely to equally share authority and household responsibilities?
C) Courtney and Eleanor, a European-American same-sex couple
Which statement is true about marital satisfaction?
When a marriage is distressed, women are more likely than men to express dissatisfaction.
In partner abuse studies spanning many countries in which people are asked directly, __________.
A) rates of assault experienced by men and women are similar
Many perpetrators treated for partner abuse __________.
D) repeat their violent behavior with the same or a new partner
Among U.S. adults age 40 and older, 85 percent of women and 76 percent of men __________.
C) are parents
Which woman is more likely to delay parenthood or decide against it altogether?
B) Renée, who has a high-status, demanding job
The warm, affectionate relationship and affirmation of one’s adult
status are two of the reasons that
many adults cite for choosing to __________.
D) have children
One of the most common disadvantages of parenthood cited by contemporary couples is __________.
B) role overload
After the birth of a child, gender roles of husband and wife usually __________.
A) become more traditional
For most new parents, the arrival of a baby __________.
C) does not cause significant marital strain
A second birth typically requires that fathers __________.
C) take an even more active role in parenting
In today’s complex world, men and women are __________ than in previous generations.
C) less certain about how to rear children
Guadalupe and Julio collaborate in parenting roles, engaging in
effective coparenting. Consequently,
they are __________ likely to __________.
B) more; use effective child-rearing practices
Which statement is true about parenting young children?
D) Rearing young children is a powerful source of adult development.
More people seek family therapy while parenting __________ than during any other phase of the family life cycle.
Fathers frequently turn to __________ to figure out how to relate to their child.
D) their partners
Improved family communication, improved parent–child interaction, and
social support are all
benefits of __________.
D) parent education courses
The rate of never-married Americans age 25 and older has __________ since 1960.
C) more than doubled
Men with a high school diploma or less and highly educated women in
prestigious careers are
overrepresented among singles after age 30 because __________.
C) women tend to “marry up” and men tend to “marry down”
Raymond is a single, African-American, 30-year-old man.
Statistically, what is the most likely reason
for his singlehood?
Overall, people over age 35 who have always been single __________.
C) are content with their lives
Keisha does not ever plan to marry. If she is like most single
people, she will probably go through
stressful periods in her __________ due to societal pressures.
B) early and mid-thirties
In Western nations, there has been an especially dramatic rise in
cohabitation among __________
Among U.S. young people, cohabitation is __________.
D) now the preferred mode of entry into a committed intimate partnership
While the majority of cohabiting relationships in the United States
dissolve at a high rate, __________
cohabiters are exceptions to the high risk for breakup.
B) lesbian and gay
Which statement about cohabitation is true?
D) Premarital cohabitation before age 25 is associated with reduced readiness to forge a committed bond.
Amos and Wanda never had children. They married in their thirties,
and their efforts at fertility
treatments did not succeed. Amos and Wanda are __________.
B) involuntarily childless
The voluntarily childless are usually __________.
C) highly educated
The recent decline in childlessness is largely due to __________.
A) more educated, career-focused women eventually opting for parenthood
Childlessness seems to interfere with adjustment and life satisfaction __________.
B) only when it is beyond a person’s control
Divorce rates have declined over the past two decades, partly because __________.
C) of rising age at marriage, which is linked to greater marital satisfaction
Most divorces occur __________ marriage.
A) within seven years of
During the first few years of second marriages, __________.
D) marital failure is 10 percent above that for first marriages
Which statement is true about divorce in the United States?
C) Infidelity and substance abuse are among the strongest predictors of divorce.
__________ contribute(s) to the unusually high U.S. divorce rate.
A) American individualism
Which statement is true about the consequences of divorce?
B) Despite loneliness and a drop in income, women tend to bounce back more easily from divorce.
On average, people __________ within four years of divorce.
Which individual is the most likely to establish positive bonds quickly with stepchildren?
B) Wade, a stepfather with children of his own
More than half of births to African-American mothers in their twenties are to __________.
C) women without a partner
Which statement is true about children of never-married mothers?
D) They are benefited by parental marriage only when the father is a reliable source of support.
Research findings indicate that __________.
C) lesbian and gay parents are as committed to and effective as heterosexual parents
Overall, children of lesbian and gay parents can be distinguished from other families by __________.
anxiety and depression
The economic recession of 2007 to 2009 __________.
A) greatly increased the number of young people in jobs that did not match their educational preparation
Sonja, a recent college graduate, just started a job in her chosen
field. Which relationship is the most
likely to benefit her career progress?
C) selecting a helpful senior colleague as a mentor
Which statement is true about the gender differences in career development?
D) Many women enter and exit the labor market several times, or
reduce their work hours to give birth to
and raise children.
Women who pursue nontraditional careers __________.
D) usually have “masculine” traits, such as high achievement orientation and self-reliance
In traditionally masculine fields, newly hired women whose training
is equivalent to that of newly
hired men are __________.
C) nevertheless paid less than men
The majority of women with children are __________.
C) in the work force
Among large, nationally representative samples of U.S. working
adults, employees with several time-
flexible options __________.
A) missed fewer days of work
Ellyn and Jesus are a dual-earner couple. They would like to have a
better balance between work and
family. Which advice would best help them combine their work and family roles?
B) Both should critically evaluate the time they devote to work in
view of their family values and