NUT 303 - Clinical Nutrition

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The link between ________ and diseases like obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease are well documented.



_________ is the study of food, its nutrients and how diet affects health and wellbeing.

Nutritional Medicine


_________ is a form of alternative medicine that aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation. The concept builds on the idea of an optimal nutritional environment in the body and suggests that diseases reflect deficiencies in this environment.

Orthomolecular Medicine


The study of how food, beverages, and supplements we consume affect our genes and how our genes can influence our body’s response to the vitamins, minerals, and nutrients we consume.



________ influence weight management, body composition, nutrient metabolism, cardiometabolic health, food intolerances, eating habits & performance.



_________ determines how we metabolize and utilize foods, nutrients, and supplements.

Genetic variation


Different versions of a ________ can make us respond differently to certain components in food such as the lactose in milk, the gluten in bread, the caffeine in coffee, along with the carbohydrates, fats, proteins vitamins, and minerals found in various foods.



Nutrition is one of the most important _________ factors affecting your risk for developing certain diseases and has a significant impact on overall well-being



An individual’s ability to process dietary folate efficiently depends on the ________ gene.



The MTHFR gene produces _________ , which is a vital enzyme for folate usage in the methylation process. It converts folate obtained from the diet to an active form 5-methyltetrahydrofolate.

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)


Those who have the _______ variant of the MTHFR gene have reduced MTHFR enzyme activity and are at greater risk of folate deficiency compared to those with the CC variant.

CT or TT


Research has shown that caffeine can influence ___________ . The effect of coffee on __________ depends on a variation in CYP1A4, which produces CYT P450 1A4.

Cardiovascular health; cardiovascular disease


CYT P450 1A4 is the main enzyme that breaks down caffeine in the body.



Individuals who possess the ________ variant of CYP1A2 break down caffeine more slowly and are at greater risk of high blood pressure and heart attack when caffeine intake is high.

GA or AA


With the Ga or AA variant of CYP1A2; they are at Increased risk of high blood pressure and heart attack if consuming more than ________ of caffeine daily, which is approximately 2 small cups of coffee.

200 mg


Those who have the _______ variant of the CYP1A2 actually have a lower risk of heart disease with moderate coffee consumption than those who consume no coffee at all.



What does giving a bolus of coffee in the morning on an empty stomach, that results in one being jittery, sweaty, heart palpitations, or anxious later that morning mean?

That phase one liver detox is down


Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is known to play a role in regulating the response of blood pressure to ________ .

Sodium intake


A person’s specific blood pressure response to excess sodium intake is dependent on which variant of the ________ gene they possess.



Those who have the GA or AA variant of the ACE gene are at a ________ of experiencing elevated blood pressure when ________ of sodium are consumed than those possessing the GG variant of the gene.

Greater risk; higher amounts


The TCF7L2 gene is strongly associated with developing ________ .

Type 2 diabetes


People who possess the high risk GT or TT variant of the TCF7L2 gene are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes if they eat mostly ________ .

High glycemic index carbohydrates (need a low glycemic load)


TCF7L2 gene is also involved in body ________ and body ________ . The TT variant put one at increased risk for insulin resistance when total fat intake is high.

Weight regulation; composition


Putting a person on a ________ diet helps with insulin resistance.

Whole foods


The effect of omega-3 fat on triglyceride levels depends on variations in a gene called ________ . Directs the production of an enzyme called ________ which makes ______ and impacts how the body processes triglycerides.

NOS3; nitric oxide synthase; nitric oxide


Those who have the GT or TT variant of the NOS3 gene are at greater risk of ________ when consuming a diet low in omega-3 fats, compared to those who have the GG variant.

Elevated triglyceride levels


The effect of _______ on obesity can be influenced by variations in a gene called APOA2. Directs the body to produce a specific protein called apolipoprotein A-II, which plays an important role in the body’s ability to utilize different kinds of _______ .

Saturated fat; fat


What are some examples of monounsaturated fats that have been associated with reduced risk fro heart disease?

Olive oil, almonds, avocado


Monounsaturated fats can help facilitate weight loss and lower body fat composition in some individuals based on their PPARγ2 gene, which is involved in the ________ of fat cells.

Formation (The PPARγ2 gene is mainly found in fat tissue)


Individuals who have the GG or GC variant of the PPARy2 gene tend to experience greater weight loss and lose more body fat, compared to those with the CC variant, when they consume a diet high in monounsaturated fats. The GG or Gc variant should consume more than _______ of total fat intake from monounsaturated fat.



__________ can help reduce “bad” (LDL) cholesterol levels and may also help increase “good” (HDL) cholesterol.

The PPARγ2 gene is mainly found in fat tissue.

Monounsaturated fats


Because of its involvement in the formation of fat, PPARγ2 can impact _________ .

weight management and body composition


The FTO gene is also known as the ________- .

fat mass and obesity-associated gene’