Which of the following statements describes the English migrants who initially settled in the Jamestown colony in the early 1800s?
A. The group consisted of English families who sought economic opportunity.
B. Early Jamestown settlers expected to profit from gold and Indian labor.
C. They owned the Virginia Company, a tobacco-farming enterprise.
D. The settlers were primarily criminals who chose relocation over prison.
Which of the following characteristics was a common feature of royal colonies throughout English America in the seventeenth century?
A. Plantation agriculture
B. Religious freedom
C. An elected assembly
D. Prohibitions against non-English settlers
Why did Plymouth begin to thrive after its first year while Jamestown struggled for many years?
A. Plymouth's long growing season allowed for greater agricultural productivity.
B. The religious discipline of the Plymouth settlers encouraged their stronger work ethic.
C. Plymouth settlers' religious ideals led them to coexist peacefully with the Wampanoag Indians.
D. Unlike Jamestown, Plymouth began as a royal colony and benefited from royal control.
How did the Puritans justify their invasion of the Native Americans' land in the seventeenth century?
A. The Puritans interpreted epidemics that devastated Native American populations as a favorable sign from God.
B. They pointed out that the Native Americans did not raise crops but remained simple hunter-gatherers who did not need the land for farming.
C. The settlers claimed that the Native Americans must first be converted to Christianity before they had any right to the land.
D. They insisted that the local Native Americans had never properly paid for the land in the first place.
Which of the following best describes the character of Britain's empire in America before 1660?
A. Royal bureaucrats imposed colonial order harshly and consistently.
B. Involved in its own situations at home, England took no interest in any of its colonies.
C. Angered by strict imperial rule, the colonists demanded their rights as Englishmen.
D. The British ruled the American colonies in a haphazard and lax manner.
The Navigation Acts of the mid-seventeenth century included which of the following stipulations?
A. Americans had to transport goods on English, not colonial, ships.
B. American colonists were required to trade with the French West Indies.
C. European goods imported to the colonies had to go through English ports.
D. Massachusetts shippers could not refuse to participate in the slave trade.
What spurred slaves to organize the Stono Rebellion in South Carolina in 1739?
A. The Spanish in Florida had prohibited the sale of slaves from South Carolina.
B. The war with Carolina Indians created general conditions of unrest.
C. The colony's whites were grossly mistreating the slaves.
D. The Spanish governor in Florida had promised freedom to fugitive slaves.
What did the British policy of salutary neglect of the American colonies in the early eighteenth century mean?
A. The British relaxed their supervision of the colonies' internal affairs while concentrating on defense and trade policies.
B. Britain ignored Americans' hopes for independence instead of suppressing them violently.
C. The English failed to enforce nearly all the laws that Parliament passed regarding the colonies.
D. Britain refused to defend the colonies and instead expected colonial taxpayers to assume the entire burden.
Why were German and Scots-Irish immigrants attracted to Pennsylvania?
A. Scots-Irish and German immigrants were predominantly Quakers.
B. Pennsylvania had an abundance of cheap land and practiced religious tolerance.
C. Pennsylvania's plantation-based economy was similar to the agricultural systems of their home countries.
D. Rumors of abundant gold fields in the Appalachian Mountains drew Germans and Scots-Irish to Pennsylvania.
The English philosopher John Locke believed which of the following ideas?
A. People had natural rights such as life, liberty, and property.
B. Education corrupted human's natural purposes and instincts.
C. Most people were not qualified to exercise and influence over politics.
D. Human nature was fundamentally acquisitive and competitive.
During the Great Awakening in the 1730s and 1740s, which of the following groups challenged the authority of ministers?
A. Old Lights
C. Traditional Puritans
D. New Lights
The French and Indian War started as a result of disputed land claims regarding...
A. the Ohio River Valley
B. the Mississippi River
C. western New York
The 1754 Albany Congress was a significant event because it demonstrated that...
A. the colonies were ready to unite for defense under England's authority.
B. a rift between the colonists and England was beginning to form.
C. Washington was prepared to surrender the Ohio Valley to the French.
D. the colonists rejected unification by declining to adopt Franklin's plan for union.
The Proclamation of 1763 angered the British colonists because...
A. they felt it didn't do enough to protect them from Native American aggression.
B. it allowed the French to maintain control over New Orleans.
C. it reinforced many of the most despised provisions of the Navigation Acts.
D. they had become accustomed to salutary neglect from the British monarchy.
Which of the following was a provision of the Treaty of Paris of 1763?
A. Native American tribes agree to vacate the land between the Appalachian Mountains.
B. Spain acquired Louisiana and all of France's territory in Canada.
C. England received both of the French sugar islands in the West Indies.
D. France lost all of her North American territory east of the Mississippi River.
The Stamp Act...
A. inspired more widespread resistance than the Sugar Act because it impacted a greater number of colonists.
B. barely passed by a divided Parliament deeply concerned about American opposition.
C. was problematic because it bore heavily on the poorest colonists and exempted the rich.
D. was supported by Benjamin Franklin and other prominent colonial leaders as a reasonable tax.
At the request of General Thomas Gage, British Parliament passed the Quartering Act, which required
A. Americans to vacate their homes for the quartering of British troops on demand of any commander.
B. colonists to fund barracks and food for the British troops that remained stationed in America after the Seven Years War.
C. that treasonous Americans be hanged and "quartered", that is, cut into four pieces by the hangman.
D. that collectors of the Stamp Tax receive a commission of one-quarter of the revenue they took in.
Members of activist groups, such as Sons of Liberty, were typically which of the following?
A. Leading colonial lawyers and merchants
B. Unemployed workers with little to lose from rioting
C. Artisans, shopkeepers, poor laborers, and seamen
D. Outside agitators looking to create disorder
The Townshend Acts of 1767 imposed duties on which of the following goods?
A. Molasses and wheat exported to countries in continental Europe
B. All British-manufactured goods and tea imported into the colonies
C. Paper, paint, glass and tea imported into the colonies
D. Indigo, wood, lumber, and naval supplies exported to Britain from the colonies.
In the decade before the American Revolution, the colonists' achieved the greatest effect by using which of the following means of protest?
Which of the following actions was NOT part of the Coercive Acts of 1774?
A. Boston Port Bill - closing Boston Harbor
B. Massachusetts Governing Act - annulment of the colonial charter of Massachusetts
C. Massachusetts Law and Order Act - increase troops in Boston and seize armaments from local militias
D. Justice Act - trials for capital crimes would be transferred to Britain
Which of the following statements describes the events of April 1775, Battle of Lexington and Concord?
A. The bloodshed that took place resulted in the formation of the Second Continental Congress
B. Hundreds of British soldiers were killed in each battle.
C. Colonial militias were caught off guard by the surprise British attack.
D. The British captured rebel weapons and several prominent Patriot leaders.
Which of the following events took place during the Second Continental Congress in 1775?
A. Delegates elected Sam Adams as president.
B. George Washington became head of the Continental army.
C. The body rejected John Adams' proposal for reconciliation.
D. Southerners agreed to emancipate all salves who helped fight the British.
Which of the following statements characterize the relative military strengths of the British and Patriot forces during the Revolutionary War?
A. The Patriots could count on more help from Indians than could the British.
B. The British benefited from the loyalty of New England because wealthy merchants wanted to protect their economic interests.
C. Due to American shipbuilding, American naval strength roughly matched that of the British Navy.
D. The British had a standing army already stationed in America.
Which of the following statements describes the American military strategy during the Revolutionary War?
A. Win a few significant battles early in the war to convince the British to back down.
B. Try to keep the British troops confined to major cities like Boston and New York and use merchant ships to block the British navy bringing relief supplies.
C. Arrest all Loyalists and conducted total warfare with Natives to the west to take away two of the major British advantages.
D. Fight a defensive war to draw the British away from the coast and extend their supply lines, eventually depleting their morale.
Which of the following factors posed a major problem for the colonies during the American Revolution?
A. The absence of allies, despite continuous diplomatic attempts.
B. France's refusal to colonists to use the port in New Orleans due to their desire to remain neutral during the war.
C. Economic troubles tied to the high price and scarcity of goods.
D. The Spanish alliance with the British forcing the Continental Army to redeploy troops to defend against an invasion from Florida.
Which of the following statements characterized Pennsylvania's democratic constitution of 1776?
A. It became the framework upon which the federal constitution would be based.
B. It reflected the ideas John Adams articulated in his book, Thoughts on Government.
C. Thomas Jefferson criticized the constitution for being too conservative and "betraying the republican spirit of the revolution."
D. It's radical democratic elements emphasized the most republican ideals of the American Revolution, but alarmed many conservative Patriots.
Which of the following is NOT one of the accomplishments of the government under the Articles of Confederation?
A. The Land Ordinance of 1784 - established the process for territories to become states as their population grew
B. The Land Ordinance of 1785 - established the method for surveying property and the cost of property
C. The Land Ordinance of 1786 - established the plan for an orderly removal of Native Americans from the western territories
D. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 - prohibited slavery in territory that would later be the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin
The Great Compromise led to which of the following outcomes?
A. A bicameral legislature with a House of Representatives and a Senate.
B. The separation of powers among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
C. A division of powers between the states and the national government.
D. Interstate and foreign trade controlled by the national government.
The Constitution gave the national government which of the following?
A. Powers equal to those that were granted to the states
B. A weak chief executive with carefully limited powers
C. Fewer powers than those reserved to the states
D. Broad powers over taxation, military defense, and commerce
The Bill of Rights:
A. established a clear formula for balancing state and federal power
B. guaranteed all men's right to vote for their political leaders
C. was critical in appeasing anti-federalists in the ratification of the Constitution
D. increased Americans' fears of an oppressive national government
The critical disagreement that led to the emergence of political parties in the mid-1790s was based on which of the following issues?
A. Settlement in the western territories
B. Hamilton's financial plan
C. Interstate trade
Which of the following statements characterizes the American reaction to the French Revolution?
A. Only American politicians welcomed by the French Revolution and the creation of a more democratic republic in 1792
B. It further divided Americans between Republicans who celebrated the democratic ideology of the Revolution and Federalists who feared social unrest
C. The majority of Americans ignored it, thankful that they were separated from European turmoil by the Atlantic Ocean
D. Strongly religious Americans praised the new French government because of its embrace of traditional Christianity
Which of the following served as a catalyst for the 1794 domestic insurgency known as the Whiskey Rebellion?
A. Farm foreclosures
B. High interest rates
C. An excise tax
D. The Panic of 1793
Which of the following is an accurate description of the XYZ affair
A. Angered over a French diplomat's attempt at soliciting a bribe before conducting diplomacy, President Adams initiated an undeclared war with France
B. When the newspapers exposed that President Jefferson was secretly providing France with economic aid to help their war against England
C. John Adams forced Alexander Hamilton not to run for president in 1796 by threatening to release evidence of an extramarital affair
D. Alexander Hamilton agreed to endorse Thomas Jefferson over John Adams in the election of 1800 after Jefferson promised to make him Secretary of State
Which of the following individuals would have been most likely to gravitate toward the Federalists in the late 1790s?
A. South Carolina rice plantation owner
B. Wealthy New York banker
C. New England subsistence farmer
D. Scots-Irish settler in Tennessee
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which were set forth in 1798, supported which of the following positions?
A. Repealing the neutrality laws of the 1790s
B. States' right to judge the legitimacy of national laws
C. The defeat of Hamilton's debt payment program
D. The right of secession for states dissatisfied with the Union
In the election of 1800, Thomas Jefferson received the bulk of his support from
A. families involved in the outwork system in the Middle Colonies
B. merchants in New England
C. farmers in the South and West
D. bankers from large cities like Boston and New York
Which of the following was an action taken by Jefferson's administration to reverse policies established by the Federalists?
A. ending the excise tax
B. reducing the protective tariffs
C. abolishing the national bank
D. implementing the Embargo Act
Which of the following describes Jefferson's approach to the opportunity to purchase Louisiana in 1802?
A. In keeping with his strict constructional view of the Constitution, Jefferson jumped on the opportunity
B. Jefferson delayed so that he could obtain a constitutional amendment allowing presidential land purchases
C. Unsure of the extent of his presidential powers, Jefferson procrastinated until Congress forced him to act
D. It was the first of many instances which left Jefferson conflicted about his presidential powers, eventually deciding to act in favor of increased authority
Each of the following actions taken by the Americans were meant to deal with the issue of British impressment except...?
A. Jay's Treaty - written by Alexander Hamilton
B. The Naturalization Act, passed by John Adams
C. Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807, enacted by Thomas Jefferson
D. The War of 1812, declared by Thomas Madison
At the Hartford Convention, Federalists expressed which of the following views?
A. Almost all Federalists supported the War of 1812 out of patriotism and a desire to acquire eastern Canada from Britain
B. Most Federalists reluctantly supported the War of 1812 because public opinion favored it and they wanted to win in the upcoming midterm elections
C. Federalists, such as Daniel Webster, welcomed the high tariff brought by the War of 1812 because it would help New England industries
D. Most Federalists strongly opposed the War of 1812 and suggested a Constitutional amendment to prevent future such wars
Led by Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court made a series of decisions in the first half of the 19th Century which upheld the principle of
A. states' rights
B. limited government
C. the supremacy of national laws over state laws
D. social welfare
Which of the following took place after the Bank of the United States' charter expired in 1811?
A. Congress chartered the Second Bank of the United States later that same year
B. Federalists urged the bank's dissolution on the grounds that it was unconstitutional
C. President James Madison began to invest his own funds in the Bank of the United States
D. Republicans did not renew the charter in 1811, but chartered a Second Bank of the United States in 1816 after financial instability ensured
How did the Missouri Crisis of 1820 end?
A. The northern states refused to admit Missouri into the United States, leaving statehood in question until the Civil War
B. As part of a compromise, the remainder of the Louisiana Territory land was designated as either "free" or "slave" to avoid any future conflict
C. Missouri could become a slave state only if the South agreed to outlaw the importation of slaves from Africa
D. Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Minnesota was added as a free state to maintain the balance of power in the senate