microbiology disease review

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Microbiology
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diseases
updated 1 year ago by czarita
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1

How can prions be destroyed?

It's almost impossible. Can't bury, boil, disinfect, or wait for years. Temperatures that turn it to ash don't always kill it.

2

Why is BSE crossing species barrier a concern?

It could be more virulent and have shorter incubation time and more likely to cross species barrier (passage) to humans

3

True or false: no person has ever gotten scrapie from eating lamb

TRUE

4

What other animals have gotten spongiform encephalopathy?

Mink in Wisconsin (they were fed downer cattle carcasses - evidence of low level strain of BSE in US)

But there was surveillance by USDA on 6100 brains of downer cattle and no evidence was found

British house cats also acquired from beef in food (indicating BSE had larger host range than scrapie)

5

How did US try to prevent spread of mad cow?

Banned all British meat products in 1989

6

Why can't we know the risk of prion diseases?

Incubation period is so long that infected cattle could have been included in food fed to humans and so transmission could have occurred and we still might not see the results.

7

bovine spongiform encephalopathy

mad cow disease

8

How did mad cow disease cross species barrier from sheep to cows?

sheep brains were fed to cows (and cow brains)

9

spongiform encephalopathy

a spongy brain disease caused by prions - i.e. scrapie, mad cow disease, CJD

10

What does kuru refer to?

disease caused by prions found among cannibalistic people from New Guinea

11

partially dsDNA with reverse transcriptase

  • Orthohepadnavirus Hepatitis B virus
12

dsDNA

  • Simplexvirus Human alphaherpesvirus 1 and Simplexvirus Human alphaherpesvirus 2
  • Alphapapillomavirus Human papillomavirus-16, 18
  • Varicellovirus Human alphaherpesvirus 3
13

positive sense ssRNA

  • Flavivirus Zika virus
14

negative sense ssRNA

  • Ebolavirus Zaire Ebolavirus (genus sp)
  • Orthohantavirus Hantaan orthohantavirus
  • Lyssavirus Rabies lyssavirus
  • Morbillivirus Measles morbillivirus
  • Alphainfluenzavirus Influenza A virus Influenza A virus subtype H1N1
15
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Flavivirus zika virus

(and toxoplasma gondii)

16
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Toxoplasma gondii

17
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Toxoplasmosis

18

Yeast infection

Candida albicans

19

Streptococcus pyogenes

  • beta hemolytic
  • hyaluronic acid capsule
  • rheumatic fever/strep throat
  • scarlet fever
  • impetigo
  • cellulitis
20

Staphylococcus aureus

  • HAI
  • superantigens
  • can cause diarrhea
  • beta hemolytic
21

Gram positive

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • Clostridioides difficile
22

Gram negative

  • Vibrio cholerae
  • Neisseria gonnrhoroeae
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Helicobacter pylori
23

Acid fast

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium leprae
24

Virus

  • Hantavirus
  • HSV1/HSV2 (herpes)
  • Varicella zoster virus (chicken pox/shingles)
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • HPV (human papilloma virus)
  • Ebola virus
  • Influenza virus (H1N1)
  • Measles (Rubeola virus)
  • Rabies lyssavirus
25

Protozoan

Plasmodium spp. (malaria)

Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis)

26

Plasmodium spp.

malaria

27

Bacterial causes of diarrhea

C. difficile

V. cholerae

S. aureus

B. anthracis (alimentary)

28

Viral causes of diarrhea

Hantavirus

HIV

Ebolavirus

Influenza (maybe?)

Measles (Rubeola)

29

Protozoan causes of diarrhea

Plasmodium spp. (malaria)

30

Rats are a reservoir and most common in US in New Mexico

Hantavirus

31

Spores allow soil or anywhere to be a reservoir

C. difficile

C. botulinum

B. anthracis

32

Causes floppy baby syndrome

C. botulinum

33

Human and old world macaques are reservoir

H. pylori

Plasmodium spp.

34

Water is a reservoir

V. cholerae

35

Humans are only reservoir

  • N. gonorrhoeae
  • N. miningitidis
  • Influenza
  • HSV 1/2
  • C. albicans
  • M. tuberculosis
  • M. leprae (except armadillos)
36

Human and farm/domestic animal reservoirs

  • S. aureus
  • B. anthracis
  • Influenza
  • S. pyogenes
37

Commensals with human microflora

  • M. leprae
  • M. tuberculosis
  • S. pyogenes
  • S. aureus
  • C. difficile
  • C. albicans
  • N. meningitidis
38

Cats are a reservoir

Toxoplasma gondii

39

Facultative anaerobe

  • S. aureus
  • S. pyogenes
  • B. anthracis
  • N. gonorrhoeae (bc it can use nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor)
  • V. cholerae
40

Anaerobic

  • C. difficile
  • C. botulinum
41

Obligate aerobe

N. meningitidis

M. tuberculosis

42

Capnophile

Helicobacter pylori

43

Transmitted via mucous fluids

  • S. aureus
  • Influenza
  • S. pyogenes
  • N. gonorrhoeae
  • N. meningitidis
  • Hantavirus
  • HPV
  • HSV 1/2 (if active cold sore)
  • H. pylori
44

Transmitted via respiratory droplets

  • Influenza
  • S. pyogenes
45

Sexually transmitted

  • N. gonorrhoeae
  • Flavivirus zika virus
  • HSV1 and 2
  • HPV
  • Hep B virus
46

Transmitted via water

  • V. cholerae
47

Fecal-oral route

  • C. difficile
  • V. cholerae
48

Indirect object- human transmission

  • Influenza
  • C. difficile
  • S. aureus
  • C. albicans
49

mosquito transmission

  • Flavivirus zika virus
  • Plasmodium spp.
50

Human-human transmission

  • Influenza
  • C. difficile
  • S. aureus
  • S. pyogenes
  • N. gonorrhoeae
  • V. cholerae
  • C. albicans (through birth)
  • HSV1 and 2
  • N. meningitidis
  • ...and more
51

Via toxins in food

  • S. aureus
  • C. botulinum
52

Via spores

  • B. anthracis
  • C. difficile
  • C. botulinum
53
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  • strep throat
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
54
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  • Staphylococcus aureus
55
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  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
56

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  • intracellular in leukocytes
  • diplococci
  • gram negative
  • urethritis/epidydimidis/cervicitis/PID
57

Neisseria meningitidis

  • meningococcus
  • most common in meningitis belt of sub-saharan Africa
  • fulminant/transient/chronic varieties
  • petechial rash (blood vessels below skin break)
58
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Neisseria meningitidis

59

Zika virus

  • Flavivirus zika virus
  • ss + sense RNA
  • enveloped
  • places with mosquitoes (aedes)
  • mild symptoms, but linked to microcephaly in infants
60

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2

  • ds DNA , enveloped
  • latency
  • trigeminal/sacral ganglia
61

Ebola virus

  • Congo 1976
  • deadly, humans and primates affected
  • ssRNA - sense, enveloped
  • hemorrhagic fever
  • fruit bat natural reservoir
  • west Africa mostly
62

Reservoir is fruit bat

Ebola virus

63

Hantavirus

  • hemorrhagic with renal syndrome, and pulmonary syndrome
  • enveloped, neg sense ssRNA
  • rodents reservoir
  • infections are rare
64

Rabies

  • Rabies lyssavirus
  • neg sense ssRNA enveloped
  • Pasteur first vaccine
  • dog/cat/animal bite
  • affects brain
  • long incubation, rapid decline (no return)
65

Measles

  • Morbillivirus (Rubeola)
  • neg sense ssRNA, enveloped
  • airborne, highly contagious
  • immunity possible with vaccine/exposure
66

Influenza virus

  • ssRNA, neg sense, enveloped
  • antigenic shift new type
  • antigenic drift small mutations (defeat vaccine)
  • new vaccine needed each year
67

HPV

  • Alphapapillomavirus Human papillomavirus-16, 18
  • dsDNA, enveloped
  • women increased cancer risk
  • causes warts on body/irregularities in genital cells
  • vaccine available
68

Hepatitis B Virus

  • virus causes inflammation of liver
  • DNA, has reverse transcriptase
  • oncogenic DNA virus
  • dark urine, jaundice, clay colored feces, flu like symptoms
  • vaccine HBV
69

Varicella zoster virus - Human herpesvirus 3

  • dsDNA, enveloped
  • chicken pox- varicella
  • shingles- zoster
  • latent infection can be established in dorsal root or cranial nerve ganglia which can re-emerge
  • Reye's syndrome - complication from taking aspirin
  • rash/blisters/pustules, 2-4 weeks
70

Candida albicans

  • eukarya
  • normal flora, opportunistic pathogen
  • polymorphic fungus with hyphae
  • causes candidiasis infection
  • treat with -azole antifungal meds
71
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candidiasis - Candida albicans

72

Malaria

  • eukarya
  • Plasmodium spp.
  • Mosquito transmission anopheles
  • cold/fever/wet cycle
  • RBCs are attacked and destroyed (blackwater fever due to Hb in urine)
  • curable/treatable but no vaccine, and resistance to chloroquinine growing
73

Toxoplasma gondii

  • toxoplasmosis (inc. ocular/congenital varieties)
  • eukarya
  • feline is definitive host bc important to sexual reproduction
  • HIV/AIDS risk factor
  • may cause stillbirth/flu like symptoms in healthy people
  • T gondii can make rodents less scared of cats
74

Vibrio cholerae

  • rice water diarrhea
  • transmitted via water (fecal contaminated)
  • gram neg rod
  • hot dog with tail shape
  • chlora toxin causes diarrhea
  • antibiotics and oral rehydration salts to treat, prevention is key
  • vaccine in US only works 3-6 months
75

Helicobacter pylori

  • gram neg, spiral shape, microaerophile
  • pH 4-8
  • urease
  • gastritis/ulcers/cancer
  • antibiotics and acid suppressing drugs to treat
76

Mycobacterium leprae

  • Hansen ID'ed causative agent in 1870 (Norway)
  • leprosy/Hansen's disease
  • armadillo reservoir
  • causes nerve damage from cell-mediated immune response
  • patches/lesions on skin/clawing of hands and feet
  • 1-2 year multi drug therapy to treat
77

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • captain of all these men of death, consumption, white plague
  • Koch won Nobel prize for IDing
  • large non-motile rods
  • obligate aerobes
  • live inside macrophages of human host
  • skin prick test to diagnose
  • 6 month treatment, multi-drug therapy
78

Bacillus anthracis

  • spores germinate within macrophages
  • cutaneous, alimentary, and inhaled diseases caused in order of least to most deadly (based on how
  • lethal factor penetrated blood brain barrier, causes hemorrhagic meningitis (cardinal cap)
  • EF and LF are two virulence factors (edema and lethal)
  • can be treated with antibiotics if caught before "point of no return"
79

Clostridioides difficile

  • elderly/people on antibiotics/hospitalized at risk
  • commensal in gut
  • creates superinfection (opportunistic pathogen) when on antibiotics
  • diarrhea, dehydration - pseudomembranous colitis
  • treating with fecal transplant (bc antibiotics can make it come back)
  • transmission through hospital workers not changing gloves
80

Clostridium botulinum

  • food, infant, wound, and adult intestinal varieties
  • usually spore doesn't germinate in intestines, usually people ingest the toxin (Botulinum toxin) and get sick
  • Bt is neurotoxin
  • symptoms are 5 D's - double vision, dry mouth, diff. swallow, diff breath, desc. paralysis
  • no fever, no change in mental status
  • HBAT to treat - passive immunization with antitoxin
  • home canned food/honey to infants are no-no's
  • US state of Georgia has highest rate in world
81

these bacteria live/germinate inside macrophages in humans

  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Mycobacterium leprae
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae